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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To isolate mesenchymal stem cells from adult horses and determine specific monolayer culture conditions required to enhance biochemically and phenotypically defined chondrocytic differentiation.

Animals

2 adult horse bone marrow donors without skeletal or hematologic abnormalities.

Procedure

Bone marrow was aspirated from the sternebra, and mesenchymal stem cells were isolated by centrifugation and cultured in monolayers. Subcultures were established in 24-well plates on day 13. Culture medium was harvested every 2 days, and culture of 12 of the 24 wells was terminated on day 6 and of the remaining wells on day 12. Medium proteoglycan content was determined for all samples, and proteoglycan monomeric size was determined for pooled samples from days 2-6 and 8-12. Total nucleated cell numbers were determined at culture termination on days 6 and 12. Histologic, histochemical, and collagen immunohistochemical analyses of multiwell chamber slides harvested on day 6 or 12 were performed.

Results

Mesenchymal cells were an abundant cellular constituent of bone marrow aspirates, and separation of hematopoietic elements was achieved by centrifugation and delayed medium exchange. The remaining mesenchymal stem cells progressed from large, spindyloid, fibroblastic-appearing cells to a rounder shaped cell which formed colony plaques; isolated cells remained more spindyloid. Mesenchymal cell transformation toward a chondrocytic phenotype was verified by a shift in expression from collagen type I to type II, and an increase in quantity and molecular size of proteoglycans synthesized over time.

Conclusions

Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from adult horses have the capacity to undergo chondrogenic differentiation in monolayer cultures and may provide a locally recruitable or transplantable autogenous cell source for articular cartilage repair. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1182-1187).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate whether upper airway sounds of horses exercising with laryngeal hemiplegia and alar fold paralysis have distinct sound characteristics, compared with unaffected horses.

Animals—6 mature horses.

Procedure—Upper airway sounds were recorded in horses exercising on a high-speed treadmill at maximum heart rate (HRMAX) under 3 treatment conditions (ie, normal upper airway function [control condition], and after induction of left laryngeal hemiplegia or bilateral alar fold paralysis) in a randomized crossover design. Fundamental frequency, spectrograms using Gabor transform, and intensity characteristics of acquired sounds (peak sound level [soundpeak] and highest frequency of at least –25 dB sound intensity [F25max]) were evaluated.

Results—Evaluation of the fundamental frequency of the time domain signal was not useful. Sensitivity and specificity (83 and 75%, respectively) of spectrograms were greatest at maximal exercise, but the exact abnormal condition was identified in evaluation of only 12 of 18 spectrograms. Increased accuracy was obtained using soundpeak and F25max as discriminating variables. The use of soundpeak discriminated between control and laryngeal hemiplegia conditions and F25max between laryngeal hemiplegia and alar fold paralysis conditions. This increased the specificity of sound analysis to 92% (sensitivity 83%) and accurately classified the abnormal state in 92% of affected horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sound analysis might be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment of horses with upper airway obstruction, but would appear to require close attention to exercise intensity. Multiple measurements of recorded sounds might be needed to obtain sufficient accuracy for clinical use. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1707–1713)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate the association of physical examination and clinicopathologic findings with surgical findings in cattle with concurrent abomasal displacement and perforating ulceration, to determine short- and long-term survival rates in these cattle, and to determine whether degree of peritonitis (focal vs diffuse) influences survival rates.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

21 cattle with concurrent abomasal displacement and perforating ulceration and 42 cattle with uncomplicated abomasal displacement.

Procedure

Information on signalment, stage of lactation, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, surgical diagnosis, procedure(s) performed, and necropsy findings were retrieved from medical records of all cattle included in this study. Differences between physical examination findings of cattle with concurrent disease and those of cattle with uncomplicated displacements were evaluated, as were differences between survival rates in cattle with focal versus diffuse peritonitis.

Results

Cattle with concurrent disease had a greater probability of having pneumoperitoneum and signs of abdominal pain identified on physical examination than did cattle with uncomplicated diseases. There was no relationship between clinicopathologic data and survival time. Short-term survival rate was 38%, and degree of peritonitis significantly influenced survival time in cattle with concurrent abomasal displacement and perforating ulceration. Long-term survival rate in these cattle was 14%.

Clinical Implications

Cattle with concurrent displaced abomasum and perforating ulceration have a poor chance for survival. In addition to detection of displaced abomasum, physical examination findings that can help lead to a presurgical diagnosis of this syndrome are pneumoperitoneum and signs of abdominal pain. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1442–1445)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association