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  • Author or Editor: Christina D. Eckstrand x
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Case Description—An 11-year-old castrated male Vizsla was evaluated for excision of a cranial mediastinal mass.

Clinical Findings—The dog had a 1-month history of a cough that had recently increased in frequency. On physical examination, the dog had a grade 2/6 left systolic heart murmur and multiple subcutaneous masses. A soft tissue mass was observed in the cranioventral aspect of the thorax on radiographs. Results of a CT scan revealed a well-defined, 2.8 × 3.2 × 3.9-cm soft tissue mass in the cranial mediastinum.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic removal of the mediastinal mass and recovered routinely. Histologic examination of excised tissues revealed malignant thymoma. Approximately 6.5 months after surgery, the dog was evaluated because of polyuria, polydipsia, decreased appetite, and vomiting. On physical examination, masses were found in both axillary regions. Results of serum biochemical analysis indicated hypercalcemia. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed pulmonary metastases and a large mass in the right caudoventral region of the thorax. The dog received supportive care and medical treatment for hypercalcemia, but clinical signs recurred. Euthanasia was elected; necropsy and histologic examination revealed thymic carcinoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Descriptions of the development of portal site metastasis in canine patients are rare. In this patient, portal site metastasis developed rapidly after thoracoscopic resection of a malignant thymic mass and was associated with hypercalcemia. As use of thoracoscopic procedures increases in veterinary medicine, it will be important to monitor the development of major complications such as those in the patient of this report. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:793–800)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess genomic sequence conservation and variation in the proviral promoter of enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) and Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in tissue samples from 3 sheep with nasal adenocarcinoma associated with ENTV and 3 sheep with pulmonary adenocarcinoma associated with JSRV and to identify a cell culture system that supports transcriptional activity of the ENTV and JSRV viral promoters.

Animals—6 adult sheep.

Procedures—Standard PCR procedures for detection of the ENTV and JSRV long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter region were performed on samples from the 3 nasal adenocarcinomas and 3 pulmonary adenocarcinomas, respectively. The LTRs were cloned into shuttle vectors, amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. The cloned LTR regions were transferred into reporter plasmids and multiple human and ruminant cell lines, and primary cells were transfected with the promoter-reporter plasmids. The viral promoter activity was evaluated by use of an in vitro β-galactosidase reporter assay.

Results—Each isolate had a unique nucleotide sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were the most common LTR mutation and rarely occurred at transcription factor binding sites. Relative to ENTV, the JSRV promoter isolates had a conserved 66-bp U3 insertion, including the lung-specific transcription factor HNF-3β binding site. Among the cell lines used, human embryonic kidney (293T) and goat synovial membrane cells supported promoter transcription.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The LTRs of ENTV and JSRV have extensive blocks of sequence conservation. Human 293T and goat synovial membrane cell lines may be suitable in vitro cell culture systems for further research of viral promoter functions.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research