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  • Author or Editor: Christina C. De Armond x
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To report clinical experience using virtual surgical planning (VSP) and surgical application of 3D printed custom surgical guides to facilitate uni- and biapical correction of antebrachial deformities in dogs.


11 dogs (13 antebrachial deformity corrections).


Using CT-based bone models, VSP was performed, and surgical guides were designed and 3D printed. The guides were used to execute osteotomies and align bone segments. Postoperative CTs were obtained to compare limb alignment with the VSP. Long-term assessment of lameness and cosmesis were compared with preoperative status.


Guides were successfully utilized and postoperative analysis was available for 10 of 13 deformities. Guides were abandoned in 2 deformities due to soft tissue tension. Evaluation of postoperative frontal, sagittal, axial, and translational limb alignment revealed that over 90% of parameters were within the acceptable range of ≤ 5° angulation and rotation or ≤ 5 mm of translation from the VSP. Lameness scores were improved in 7/8 deformities with associated preoperative lameness, and posture was improved in 10/10 deformities in which guides were deployed. Complications included reduced range of carpal motion (n = 2), implant sensitivity (n = 2), fracture (n = 1), and tendon laceration (n = 1).


VSP and customized surgical guide application facilitated accurate antebrachial limb deformity correction in the majority of deformities in this case series. The use of VSP and 3D printed guides would appear to be a viable and accurate approach for correction of both uni- and biapical antebrachial deformities in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To assess the feasibility and accuracy of using 2 methods for reduction and alignment of simulated comminuted diaphyseal tibial fractures in conjunction with 3-D–printed patient-specific pin guides.


Paired pelvic limbs from 8 skeletally mature dogs weighing 20 to 35 kg.


CT images of both tibiae were obtained, and 3-D reconstructions of the tibiae were used to create proximal and distal patient-specific pin guides. These guides were printed and used to facilitate fracture reduction and alignment in conjunction with either a 3-D–printed reduction guide or a linear type 1A external fixator. Postreduction CT images were used to assess the accuracy of pin guide placement and the accuracy of fracture reduction and alignment.


The 3-D–printed guides were applied with acceptable ease. Guides for both groups were placed with minor but detectable deviations from the planned location (P = .01), but deviations were not significantly different between groups. Fracture reduction resulted in similar minor but detectable morphological differences from the intact tibiae (P = .01). In both groups, fracture reduction and alignment were within clinically acceptable parameters for fracture stabilization by means of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis.


Virtual surgical planning and fabrication of patient-specific 3-D–printed pin guides have the potential to facilitate fracture reduction and alignment during use of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research