Objective—To determine the in vitro effect of
prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2α, and the nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin,
ketoprofen, and nabumetone on the contractile
strength of the circular smooth muscle layer of the
third compartment of the stomach of llamas.
Sample Population—Specimens of the third compartment
obtained from 5 healthy adult llamas.
Procedure—Full-thickness tissue samples were collected
from the third compartment immediately after
euthanasia. Specimens were cut into strips oriented
along the circular muscle layer and mounted in a tissue
bath system. Incremental amounts of ketoprofen,
nabumetone, indomethacin, PGE2, and PGF2α were
added, and contractile strength (amplitude of contractions)
Results—Generally, PGE2 reduced contractile
strength of the circular smooth layer of the third compartment,
whereas PGF2α increased the strength of
contractions. The activity of the NSAIDs was generally
excitatory in a concentration-dependent manner,
although significant changes were induced only by
administration of indomethacin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On isolated
smooth muscle strips of the third compartment of llamas,
exogenous PGE2 and PGF2α had a variable effect
on contractile strength. Administration of the NSAIDs
did not inhibit contractility and would not be likely to
induce stasis of the third compartment in the
absence of an underlying disease process. (Am J Vet
Objective—To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of direct digital abdominal radiography for the diagnosis of enterolithiasis in equids and to assess the effect of the number and anatomic location of enteroliths and gas distention of the gastrointestinal tract on diagnostic sensitivity of the technique.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Sample Population—238 horses and ponies ≥ 1 year old that underwent digital abdominal radiography with subsequent exploratory celiotomy or postmortem examination.
Procedures—For each case, 3 reviewers independently evaluated radiographic views. Radiographic images were evaluated for presence or absence and location of enteroliths and the degree of gas distention. Signalment, definitive diagnosis based on exploratory celiotomy or postmortem examination findings, and number and anatomic location of enteroliths were obtained from the medical records.
Results—70 of the 238 (29.4%) equids had confirmed enterolithiasis. With regard to diagnosis of enterolithiasis via digital radiography, overall sensitivity and specificity for the 3 reviewers were 84% and 96%, respectively. Sensitivity was lower for small colon enteroliths (61.5%) than for large colon enteroliths (88.9%) and was negatively affected by gas distention of the gastrointestinal tract. Sensitivity was not affected by the number of enteroliths.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sensitivity and specificity of digital radiography for the diagnosis of large colon enterolithiasis in equids was high. Sensitivity of digital radiography for detection of small colon enteroliths was lower than that for large colon enteroliths, but was higher than that typically associated with computed radiography. In geographic regions in which enterolithiasis in equids is endemic, digital abdominal radiography could be used as a diagnostic test for equids with colic.
Objective—To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of abdominal computed radiography (CR) for the diagnosis of enterolithiasis in horses and to examine how these parameters are affected by the number and anatomic location of enteroliths and by gas distension of the gastrointestinal tract.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—Horses ≥ 1 year old that underwent abdominal CR and subsequent exploratory laparotomy or postmortem examination.
Procedures—3 reviewers blinded to signalment, history, clinical signs, and diagnoses separately evaluated abdominal computed radiographs of horses included in the study. Each set of radiographs was evaluated for the presence or absence of enteroliths, the amount of gas distention, and the image quality. Signalment, definitive diagnosis on the basis of findings on exploratory laparotomy or postmortem examination, and the number and location of enteroliths were obtained from medical records.
Results—Of the 142 cases reviewed, 58.4% (83/142) had confirmed enterolithiasis. For the 3 reviewers, overall sensitivity was 85% and specificity was 93%. Sensitivity was lower for small colon enteroliths than for large colon enteroliths (50% and 94.5%, respectively) and was significantly affected by gas distention. Sensitivity was not significantly affected by the number of enteroliths.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Computed radiography provided high sensitivity and high specificity for the diagnosis of enterolithiasis in horses. Caution should be exercised when the radiographic results are negative, as the sensitivity for small colon enterolithiasis was relatively low and gas distension negatively affected detection of enteroliths. Abdominal CR is indicated as a diagnostic test in horses examined for colic in geographic regions in which enterolithiasis is endemic.