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  • Author or Editor: Chong Wang x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results associated with septic arthritis in foals ≤ 180 days old.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—83 foals with septic arthritis.

Procedures—Medical records at 2 teaching hospitals between 1998 and 2013 were searched to identify those for foals ≤ 180 days old with confirmed infection of ≥ 1 synovial structure. Data extracted from the records included signalment, clinicopathologic information, bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results, and outcome. Data were analyzed for all foals as a single population and for foals stratified into 3 age groups (≤ 7 days, 8 to 30 days, and 31 to 180 days).

Results—Mean ± SD age of all foals was 18.2 ± 25 days (range, 0 to 180 days). The median number of joints affected per foal was 2 (range, 1 to 10 joints). Forty-seven of 83 (56.6%) foals survived to discharge from the hospital. Seventy antemortem synovial fluid samples underwent bacteriologic culture, of which 60 (85.7%) yielded growth. Of the 72 bacterial isolates identified, 45 (62.5%) were gram negative and 27 (375%) were gram positive. Survival rate was positively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentration and negatively associated with number of affected joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the frequency with which certain bacterial agents were isolated from septic joints, which may be beneficial for the empirical treatment of septic arthritis in foals. Also, the positive association between survival rate and plasma fibrinogen concentration may have prognostic value in a clinical setting.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the ability of industrial polystyrene foam insulation pads to redistribute loads placed on clinically normal weight-bearing structures of the foot and shift the location of the center of pressure palmarly in horses.

Animals—25 nonlame mature horses.

Procedures—Both forefeet from each horse were evaluated. Center of pressure data and solar load distribution patterns were recorded during a 5-second trial by use of a commercial pressure measurement system prior to placement of foam sole support and at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after placement. Total contact surface area, contact pressure, peak contact pressure, and center of pressure positions were compared by use of a linear mixed model with repeated measurements.

Results—Total contact surface area was increased significantly at all time points, whereas contact pressure and peak contact pressure were significantly decreased at all time points following application of foam sole supports. Immediately following application of sole support, the position of the center of pressure was significantly moved cranially. However, by 48 hours, the center of pressure was significantly positioned more palmarly than prior to application of the foam supports.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the use of foam sole supports may be an effective, economical, and immediate treatment for acute laminitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence and anatomic location of and potential risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMIs) in racing Quarter Horses.

Design—Retrospective matched case-control study.

Animals—67 racing Quarter Horse racehorses euthanized because of CMIs and 134 matched controls.

Procedures—Data for Quarter Horses that sustained CMIs and the total number of race starts for each year were obtained from 2 Midwestern racing jurisdictions from 2000 through 2011. Information for each horse with a CMI and for 2 randomly selected control horses that ran in the same race but did not incur a CMI were obtained from race records, past performance reports, and video analysis.

Results—There were 61,797 race starts and 82 CMIs from 2000 through 2011 at the 2 racetracks studied, for an overall CMI incidence of 1.33 CMIs/1,000 starts. Sixty-seven horses with CMIs for which complete data were available and 134 matched control horses were included in the study. There was no difference in the incidence of CMIs between the 2 racetracks or over the years studied. The right forelimb was injured in 38 of the 67 (56.7%) horses. Injures to the carpus (24/67 [35.8%]) and metacarpophalangeal joint (fetlock joint; 23/67 [34.3%]) occurred most frequently. Case-control data indicated that the horses with a CMI had fewer starts, were more likely to have stumbled at the break, had a more erratic stride, were fatigued, and trailed in the race, compared with matched controls from the same races. Irrespective of race distance, most of the horses (47/67 [70.1%]) were injured after or within 10 yards before the finish line.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results of the present study may aid in the identification of racing Quarter Horses at risk for CMIs. The cluster of injuries near the finish line provides a specific focus for future research into methods of injury prevention in this population of racehorses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves.

Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study.

Animals—1,882 Angus calves.

Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated.

Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not offset lower body weight at weaning.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The associations between IBK at weaning and production variables persisted well into the postweaning period, and there appeared to be a relationship between decreased body composition traits at yearling evaluation and IBK infection before weaning.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of and compare the types of catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMIs) sustained in Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses during racing at 3 Midwestern racetracks from 2000 to 2006.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—139 Thoroughbred and 50 Quarter Horse racehorses euthanized because of CMIs.

Procedures—Veterinary officials from 3 Midwestern racing jurisdictions provided injury reports for Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses that sustained CMIs (which required euthanasia) and the total number of race starts for each year. The number of CMIs/1,000 starts was determined for each racetrack. Past performance reports for each horse with a CMI were evaluated.

Results—The total number of race starts (both breeds) at the 3 racetracks from 2000 through 2006 was 129,460, with an overall incidence of 1.46 CMIs/1,000 race starts. Incidences of CMIs among racetracks were similar. Of horses that sustained a CMI, the median age of Thoroughbreds at first race was 3 years, compared with a median age of 2 years for Quarter Horses. A larger proportion of Thoroughbreds sustained a CMI in a claiming race than did Quarter Horses, and a larger proportion of Quarter Horses sustained a CMI in a futurity trial than did Thoroughbreds. The most common site for CMIs in Thoroughbreds was the left forelimb (69/124 [55.6%]), whereas most CMIs in Quarter Horses involved the right forelimb (18/30 [60.0%]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences identified between CMIs in Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racehorses should allow veterinarians to focus on horses and anatomic regions of greatest risk of CMI during racing.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of protease inhibitors and holding times and temperatures before processing on the stability of substance P in bovine blood samples.

Samples—Blood samples obtained from a healthy 6-month-old calf.

Procedures—Blood samples were dispensed into tubes containing exogenous substance P and 1 of 6 degradative enzyme inhibitor treatments: heparin, EDTA, EDTA with 1 of 2 concentrations of aprotinin, or EDTA with 1 of 2 concentrations of a commercially available protease inhibitor cocktail. Plasma was harvested immediately following collection or after 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours of holding at ambient (20.3° to 25.4°C) or ice bath temperatures. Total substance P immunoreactivity was determined with an ELISA; concentrations of the substance P parent molecule, a metabolite composed of the 9 terminal amino acids, and a metabolite composed of the 5 terminal amino acids were determined with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

Results—Regarding blood samples processed immediately, no significant differences in substance P concentrations or immunoreactivity were detected among enzyme inhibitor treatments. In blood samples processed at 1 hour of holding, substance P parent molecule concentration was significantly lower for ambient temperature versus ice bath temperature holding conditions; aprotinin was the most effective inhibitor of substance P degradation at the ice bath temperature. The ELISA substance P immunoreactivity was typically lower for blood samples with heparin versus samples with other inhibitors processed at 1 hour of holding in either temperature condition.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that blood samples should be chilled and plasma harvested within 1 hour after collection to prevent substance P degradation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of various flow rates of oxygen administered via 1 or 2 nasal cannulae on the fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (Fio2) and other arterial blood gas variables in healthy neonatal foals.

Animals—9 healthy neonatal (3- to 4-day-old) foals.

Procedures—In each foal, a nasal cannula was introduced into each naris and passed into the nasopharynx to the level of the medial canthus of each eye; oxygen was administered at 4 flow rates through either 1 or both cannulae (8 treatments/foal). Intratracheal Fio2, intratracheal end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial blood gas variables were measured before (baseline) and during unilateral and bilateral nasopharyngeal delivery of 50, 100, 150, and 200 mL of oxygen/kg/min.

Results—No adverse reactions were associated with administration of supplemental oxygen except at the highest flow rate, at which the foals became agitated. At individual flow rates, significant and dose-dependent increases in Fio2, Pao2, and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (Sao2) were detected, compared with baseline values. Comparison of unilateral and bilateral delivery of oxygen at similar cumulative flow rates revealed no differences in evaluated variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that administration of supplemental oxygen via nasal cannulae appeared to be a highly effective means of increasing Fio2, Pao2, and Sao2 in neonatal foals. These findings may provide guidance for implementation of oxygen treatment in hypoxemic neonatal foals. (Am J Vet Med 2010;71:1081–1088)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess multiple central venous and arterial blood variables that alone or in conjunction with one another reflect global oxygenation status in healthy neonatal foals.

ANIMALS 11 healthy neonatal foals.

PROCEDURES Central venous and arterial blood samples were collected from healthy neonatal foals at 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours after birth. Variables measured from central venous and arterial blood samples included oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen, lactate concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and pH. Calculated variables included venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide gap, estimated oxygen extraction ratio, ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to the fraction of inspired oxygen, bicarbonate concentration, base excess, and blood oxygen content.

RESULTS Significant differences between arterial and central venous blood obtained from neonatal foals were detected for several variables, particularly partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and oxygen content. In addition, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in central venous blood samples was significantly higher than the value for corresponding arterial blood samples. Several temporal differences were detected for other variables.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study provided information about several variables that reflect global oxygenation in healthy neonatal foals. Values for these variables in healthy foals can allow for comparison with values for critically ill foals in future studies. Comparison of these variables between healthy and ill foals may aid in treatment decisions and prognosis of clinical outcome for critically ill foals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate tissue diffusion of anesthetic agent following administration of low palmar nerve blocks (LPBs) in horses.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—12 adult horses.

Procedures—In 9 horses, mepivacaine hydrochloride–iohexol (50:50 dilution) injections were administered bilaterally (2 or 4 mL/site) to affect the medial and lateral palmar and palmar metacarpal nerves (4 sites). Lateral radiographic views of both metacarpal regions were obtained before and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after block administration; proximal and distal extents of contrast medium (and presumably anesthetic agent) diffusion from palmar and palmar metacarpal injection sites were measured and summed to determine total diffusion. Methylene blue solution was injected in forelimbs of 3 other horses that were subsequently euthanized to determine the potential route of anesthetic agent diffusion to the proximal suspensory ligament region.

Results—Mean extents of proximal and total contrast medium diffusion were 4.0 and 6.6 cm, respectively, for the palmar metacarpal nerves and 4.3 and 7.1 cm, respectively, for the palmar nerves. Subtle proximal diffusion secondary to lymphatic drainage was evident in 17 of the 18 limbs. Contrast medium was detected in the metacarpophalangeal joint or within the digital flexor tendon sheath in 8 and 7 limbs, respectively. In the cadaver limbs, methylene blue solution did not extend to the proximal suspensory ligament region.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, LPBs resulted in minimal proximal diffusion of anesthetic agent from the injection sites. Limbs should be aseptically prepared prior to LPB administration because inadvertent intrasynovial injection may occur.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of IV administration of polymyxin B on clinical and serum biochemical variables in foals with experimental endotoxemia.

Design—Prospective experimental study.

Animals—14 healthy neonatal foals.

Procedures—Foals were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and were administered a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (0.5 μg/kg [0.23 μg/lb]) IV over 30 minutes. The treatment group received polymyxin B (6,000 U/kg [2,727 U/lb], IV) immediately after completion of lipopolysaccharide infusion; the control group was administered an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Subsequent doses of polymyxin B or saline solution were administered IV at 8 and 16 hours. Blood was collected at various time points, and outcome variables, including heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, attitude score, WBC count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, platelet count, Hct, blood lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, and plasma thromboxane B2 concentration, were measured. Urine was collected prior to and after experimentation to determine whether nephrotoxicosis was associated with treatment.

Results—The treatment group had significantly lower blood lactate concentration and serum tumor necrosis factor-α and plasma thromboxane B2 concentrations and had higher blood glucose concentrations and better attitude scores, compared with the control group, at various time points during the study. No other significant differences and no evidence of overt nephrotoxicosis were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of polymyxin B IV in healthy neonatal foals challenged with lipopolysaccharide attenuated some clinical and serum biochemical derangements associated with endotoxemia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association