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  • Author or Editor: Ching Ching Wu x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefovecin, and doxycycline in shelter-housed cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD).

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—48 cats with URTD.

Procedures—Conjunctival and nasal swab specimens were obtained for culture and susceptibility testing, and cats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (16 cats/group) on day 1: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (12.5 mg/kg [5.68 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h, for 14 days), cefovecin (8.0 mg/kg [3.64 mg/lb], SC, once), or doxycycline (10.0 mg/kg [4.55 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, for 14 days). Oculonasal discharge, sneezing, coughing, dyspnea, demeanor, and food intake were scored twice daily for 14 days (scale, 0 [subjectively normal] to 3 [markedly abnormal]).

Results—The most common bacterial isolates were Mycoplasma spp (n = 22) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (9). Cats treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline had significantly increased body weight by day 14. Cats that received doxycycline had significantly lower overall oculonasal discharge scores than those treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or cefovecin. Cats treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline had significantly lower overall sneezing scores than those that received cefovecin. Cats that received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid had significantly decreased demeanor and food intake scores on day 2, whereas this was detected later in other groups (demeanor score on days 5 and 7 and food intake score on days 10 and 11 in the cefovecin and doxycycline groups, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline appeared to be more effective than a single SC injection of cefovecin in treating cats with clinical signs of URTD.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for continuous infusion of gentamicin into the tarsocrural joint of horses, to determine pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in synovial fluid of the tarsocrural joint during continuous infusion, and to evaluate effects of continuous infusion of gentamicin on characteristics of the synovial fluid.

Animals—12 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—An infusion catheter consisting of flow control tubing connected to a balloon infuser was used. Gentamicin solution (100 mg/ml) was infused in the right tarsocrural joint and balanced electrolyte solution was infused in the left tarsocrural joint for 5 days. Synovial fluid and serum gentamicin concentrations were measured by use of a fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

Results—17 of the 24 (71%) infusion catheters initially placed functioned without complications for the entire 5-day infusion period. Median gentamicin concentration in synovial fluid from treated joints during the 5-day infusion period ranged from 287.5 to 982 μg/ml. Median serum gentamicin concentration during this period ranged from 2.31 to 2.59 μg/ml. Mean (± SD) elimination half-life and total clearance of gentamicin from the synovial fluid were 6.25 ± 1.01 hours and 1.52 ± 0.96 ml/min, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An infusion catheter can be used for continuous infusion of gentamicin into the tarsocrural joints of horses for up to 5 days. At a gentamicin dosage of 0.17 ± 0.02 mg/kg/h, continuous intra-articular infusion results in synovial fluid gentamicin concentrations greater than 100 times the minimal inhibitory concentration reported for common equine pathogens. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:407–412)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the in vitro antifungal properties of silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and natamycin against filamentous fungi isolated from eyes of horses with keratomycosis.

Sample Population—Filamentous fungal isolates obtained from eyes of keratomycosis-affected horses.

Procedures—Fungal culture of ocular samples yielded 6 Fusarium spp; 7 Aspergillus spp; and 1 isolate each of Curvularia, Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, and Chrysosporium. For each fungal isolate, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of SSD and natamycin were determined.

Results—For all 17 fungal isolates, SSD MIC distribution ranged from ≤ 1 to > 64 μg/mL; MIC50 and MIC90 (MICs at which 50% and 90% of organisms were inhibited) were 4 and 32 μg/mL, respectively. The SSD MFC distribution for all isolates was ≤ 1 to > 64 μg/mL; MFC50 and MFC90 (MFCs at which 50% and 90% of organisms were killed) were 8 and > 64 μg/mL, respectively. For all fungal isolates, natamycin MIC distribution ranged from 256 to > 1,000 μg/mL; MIC50 and MIC90 were 512 and > 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The natamycin MFC distribution for all isolates ranged from 512 to > 1,000 μg/mL; MFC50 and MFC90 were each > 1,000 μg/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These in vitro data suggest that SSD is fungicidal against the fungal isolates that were obtained from eyes of horses with keratomycosis and that natamycin is fungicidal against some of the isolates at the drug concentrations evaluated. Silver sulfadiazine may be a therapeutic option for equine keratomycosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify environmental risk factors for leptospirosis.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—36 dogs with leptospirosis and 138 dogs seronegative for leptospirosis as determined by microscopic agglutination test for antibodies against Leptospira spp.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs evaluated for leptospirosis from 1997 though 2002 were identified. Owner address was used to geocode locations of dogs, and location-specific environmental risk factor data were obtained by use of a geographic information system. Risk of leptospirosis was estimated by odds ratios, controlling for potential confounding by dog age, sex, and breed.

Results—Leptospirosis in 19 of the 30 dogs in which an infecting Leptospira serovar could be identified was associated with Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa infection. Dogs in which a diagnosis of leptospirosis was made, and dogs with leptospirosis caused by L kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa, were more likely to have addresses located in areas classified as rural in 1990 but urban in 2000. By use of information on recent urbanization and a logistic regression model, the status of 81.6% and 89.8% of dogs with leptospirosis and leptospirosis caused by serovar grippotyphosa, respectively, were correctly classified. Other environmental variables (proximity to streams, recreational areas, farmland, wetlands, areas subject to flooding, and areas with poor drainage; annual rainfall; and county cattle or pig population) did not significantly improve accuracy of classification.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs in periurban areas are at greater risk of leptospirosis. Vaccination of dogs in these areas to protect against leptospirosis should be considered. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:72–77)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To use results of microscopic agglutination tests (MATs) conducted at a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory to determine temporal and demographic distributions of positive serologic test results for leptospirosis in dogs and identify correlations among results for various Leptospira serovars.

Design—Serosurvey.

Study Population—MAT results for 33,119 canine serum samples submitted to a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory from 2000 through 2007.

Procedures—Electronic records of MAT results for dogs were obtained from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Seropositivity for antibodies against Leptospira serovars was determined by use of a cutoff titer of ≥ 1:1,600 to reduce the possible impact of postvaccinal antibodies on results. Correlations between results for all possible pairs of serovars were calculated by ordinal ranking of positive (≥ 1:100) antibody titer results.

Results—2,680 samples (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8% to 8.4%) were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. The highest percentage of positive MAT results was for the year 2007 (10.2%; 95% CI, 9.5% to 10.9%) and for the months of November and December during the study period. Antibodies were most common against serovars Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and Bratislava. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was lowest for dogs > 10 years of age but was similar across other age strata.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis can affect dogs of small and large breeds and various ages. Although an increase in proportions of positive MAT results was evident in the fall, monthly and annual variations suggested potential exposure in all months. Because of the limitations of MAT results and the limited number of serovars used in the test, bacterial culture should be used to identify infective Leptospira serovars.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a continuous intra-articular infusion of gentamicin on the synovial membrane and articular cartilage in the tarsocrural joint of horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—A balloon infusion system attached to a catheter placed in the plantarolateral pouch of both tarsocrural joints in each horse was used for continuous gentamicin solution (GM) or balanced electrolyte solution (BES) delivery for 5 days. Cartilage and synovial membrane specimens were collected on day 5 from 3 horses and on day 14 from the remaining 3 horses. Both infused joints from each horse were assessed, using gross evaluation and histologic scoring systems.

Results—Significant differences in the histologic scores of synovial membrane specimens between the GM- and BES-treated joints at either 5 or 14 days were not observed. Safranin-O-fast green staining scores were similar between cartilage specimens from GM- and BES-treated joints. Although the synovial membrane histologic scores and safranin-O-fast green staining scores improved from day 5 to 14, the changes in scores were not significant. Loss of synovial intimal cells from villi was found more commonly in sections of synovial membrane from GM-treated joints, compared with BES-treated joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Continuous infusion of GM into the tarsocrural joint of horses does not have significant effects on histologic scores of articular cartilage or synovial membrane, compared with those infused with BES. Continuous infusion of GM into the tarsocrural joint of horses for 5 days is an acceptable method for the treatment of septic arthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:683–687)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To assess methods of detecting environmental contamination with Salmonella organisms and evaluate a cleaning and disinfection protocol for horse stalls in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Original study.

Sample Population—37 horses with diarrhea likely to be caused by Salmonella infection and their stall environments.

Procedures—Fecal samples were collected from horses daily during hospitalization; samples were obtained from stall sites after cleaning and application of disinfectants. Fecal and environmental samples were cultured for Salmonella spp and tested via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect Salmonella DNA.

Results—1 horse died and 2 were discharged prior to sample collection. Fecal samples from 9 of 34 horses yielded growth of Salmonella organisms on bacteriologic culture, and 23 yielded positive results via PCR assay on ≥ 1 occasion. Among environmental samples from 21 stalls, salmonellae were detected at ≥ 1 stall site on 6 of 78 occasions, and ≥ 1 stall site yielded positive results via PCR assay on 69 of 77 occasions. Salmonella DNA was detected more frequently in samples of stall drains, cracks, and corners. Salmonella spp were cultured from samples of 3 stalls after both initial and second cleaning and disinfection cycles, but no organisms were detected in samples obtained after use of a peroxygen disinfectant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that stalls in which horses with salmonellosis were housed should only be used to accommodate newly hospitalized horses after samples (collected after 2 cycles of cleaning and disinfection) from drains, cracks, and corners yield negative results on bacteriologic culture. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1640–1644)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate serovar-specific prevalence of leptospirosis by use of veterinary teaching hospital and laboratory submission data; describe annual and seasonal patterns of leptospirosis; and identify risk factors for age, sex, and breed.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—90 dogs with leptospirosis.

Procedures—Hospital records of dogs examined at Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of leptospirosis and laboratory records of dogs from which sera were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp at Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory from 1997 through 2002 were reviewed. The likely infecting Leptospira serovar was identified. Seasonal and annual prevalences were calculated by use of hospital population at risk (hospital cases) or serologic testing submissions (diagnostic laboratory cases). Age-, sex-, and breed-specific risk factors for hospital cases were estimated by odds ratios.

Results—Of the 39 hospitalized dogs identified, 34 had been serologically tested, and 22 of those were infected with Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. Of the 51 diagnostic laboratory cases, 59% had a reciprocal titer ≥ 800 against serovar grippotyphosa. Diagnostic laboratory cases were more common in summer, whereas hospital cases of leptospirosis were more common in fall. Male dogs were at significantly greater risk of leptospirosis than female dogs; and dogs 4 to 6.9 years old were at significantly greater risk than dogs < 1 year old.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceL kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa infection was associated with most cases of leptospirosis in dogs. Use of an effective vaccine that includes this serovar is advisable for dogs at risk of leptospirosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1958–1963)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association