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  • Author or Editor: Chin-Chi Liu x
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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old 8.3-kg (18.3-lb) neutered male Miniature Schnauzer was referred for diagnosis and treatment of a sudden onset of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and pallor.

CLINICAL FINDINGS On physical examination, the dog was lethargic with pale mucous membranes and a capillary refill time ≥ 2 seconds. Skin and sclera were mildly icteric. Signs of pain were elicited during abdominal palpation, and an enlarged spleen was noted. Results of agglutination testing and cytologic findings were consistent with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). No contributing factors for development of IMHA were identified.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial treatment included management with immunosuppressant medications. Three packed RBC transfusions were administered, but clinical signs continued to progress. Therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was performed 5 and 9 days after admission. Following each TPE procedure, the dog had an appreciable clinical improvement and decrease in RBC autoagglutination, and the Hct stabilized. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations were measured during and after both TPE procedures. Despite anticoagulative treatment, the dog developed a thrombus in the splenic vein, necessitating a splenectomy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE The decrease and rebound in serum IgG and IgM concentrations following TPE provided evidence that TPE may have the same immunomodulatory effects in dogs as have been proposed to occur in people. Further, findings suggested that TPE may be a useful alternative in dogs with refractory IMHA when traditional treatments fail.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure serum fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) concentration and gallbladder volume in healthy dogs before and after feeding to determine whether serum FGF-19 concentration increases following gallbladder contraction and to assess FGF-19 stability in blood samples kept under different storage conditions after collection in tubes containing no anticoagulant or in serum separator tubes.

ANIMALS

10 healthy dogs of various ages and breeds (30 blood samples and 30 gall-bladder volume measurements).

PROCEDURES

Serum FGF-19 concentration was measured with a commercially available ELISA. Gallbladder volume was determined ultrasonographically. Blood samples and gallbladder measurements were obtained from the dogs after food had been withheld for 12 hours (baseline) and at 1 and 3 hours after feeding. The stability of serum FGF-19 was assessed in samples collected in tubes containing no anticoagulant or in serum separator tubes and stored at –80°C for variable intervals or 4°C for 1 or 5 days.

RESULTS

Serum FGF-19 concentration was significantly increased from baseline at 1 and 3 hours after feeding. There was a significant decrease in gallbladder volume 1 hour after feeding, compared with baseline findings. Regardless of collection tube used, concentrations of FGF-19 in serum obtained from blood samples that were collected and immediately stored at –80°C differed significantly from concentrations in serum obtained from blood samples that had been collected and stored at 4°C for 5 days.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that postprandial gallbladder contraction results in increases of serum FGF-19 concentration in healthy dogs. Assessment of circulating FGF-19 concentration could be used to detect disruptions in the enterohepatic-biliary axis in dogs.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare urinalysis results for canine urine samples stored in preservative-containing tubes at room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]) or refrigerated at 4°C (39.2°F) in plain glass tubes with results for the same samples immediately after collection.

SAMPLES

Urine samples from 20 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

Urine samples (1/dog) were divided into 6 aliquots (3 in preservative-containing tubes and 3 in plain glass tubes). Preservative-containing tubes were stored at room temperature and plain glass tubes were refrigerated. Urinalysis was performed 0, 24, and 72 hours after collection. Results for both storage conditions were compared with results for a reference sample (the 0-hour [immediate post-collection] aliquot in a plain glass tube) by Spearman correlation analysis with pairwise tests for selected variables.

RESULTS

Physical variables (urine color and turbidity with and without centrifugation) for both storage conditions had high (r s = 0.7 to 0.9) or very high (r s = 0.9 to 1.0) degrees of positive correlation with reference sample results at all time points, except for color at 24 hours. Similar results were found for all biochemical variables with storage up to 72 hours. For microscopic characteristics, correlation with reference sample results ranged from low or nonsignificant to very high under both storage conditions.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that if a delay in urinalysis is expected, use of the preservative-containing tubes evaluated in this study may be a viable option for sample storage. Further research is warranted to assess direct comparability of results to those of freshly collected samples and use of these tubes to store samples from dogs with conditions affecting the urinary tract.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare results of a commercially available device for oscillometrically measured blood pressure (OBP) with invasively measured blood pressure (IBP) in awake and anesthetized dogs.

ANIMALS

19 adult dogs (mean ± SD body weight, 17.8 ± 7.5 kg).

PROCEDURES

Blood pressures were measured in dogs while they were awake and anesthetized with isoflurane. The OBP was recorded on a thoracic limb, and IBP was simultaneously recorded from the median caudal artery. Agreement between OBP and IBP was evaluated with the Bland-Altman method. Guidelines of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) were used for validation of the oscillometric device.

RESULTS

In awake dogs, mean bias of the oscillometric device was −11.12 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −61.14 to 38.90 mm Hg) for systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), 9.39 mm Hg (LOA, −28.26 to 47.04 mm Hg) for diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP), and −0.85 mm Hg (LOA, −40.54 to 38.84 mm Hg) for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). In anesthetized dogs, mean bias was −12.27 mm Hg (LOA, −47.36 to 22.82 mm Hg) for SAP, −3.92 mm Hg (LOA, −25.28 to 17.44 mm Hg) for DAP, and −7.89 mm Hg (LOA, −32.31 to 16.53 mm Hg) for MAP. The oscillometric device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for the validation of such devices.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Agreement between OBP and IBP results for awake and anesthetized dogs was poor. The oscillometric blood pressure device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for validation. Therefore, clinical use of this device cannot be recommended.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the dose of alfaxalone for IM administration combined with dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone that would allow endoscopic-guided orotracheal intubation in rabbits without causing a decrease in respiratory rate or apnea.

ANIMALS

15 sexually intact (9 females and 6 males) healthy Miniature Lop rabbits weighing a mean ± SD of 2.3 ± 0.3 kg and ranging in age from 4 to 9 months.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, controlled clinical trial, rabbits received 0.1 mg of hydro-morphone/kg and 0.005 mg of dexmedetomidine/kg, plus alfaxalone at either 2 mg/kg (5 rabbits), 5 mg/kg (5 rabbits), or 7 mg/kg (5 rabbits). Drugs were mixed in a single syringe and administered IM. Semiquantitative rating scales were used to evaluate quality of anesthesia and intubation. Orotracheal intubation was attempted with endoscopy and confirmed by capnography.

RESULTS

The number of successful intubations was 0, 3, and 4 in rabbits receiving 2, 5, and 7 mg of alfaxalone/kg, respectively. Median (range) anesthesia quality scores (scale, 0 to 12; 12 = deepest anesthesia) were 3 (2 to 5), 6 (5 to 6), and 6 (4 to 9) for rabbits receiving 2, 5, and 7 mg of alfaxalone/kg, respectively. The median (range) intubation quality scores (scale, 0 to 3 [ie, intubation not possible to easiest intubation]) were 0 (0 to 0), 2 (0 to 3), and 2 (0 to 3) for rabbits receiving 2, 5, and 7 mg of alfaxalone/kg, respectively. None of the rabbits experienced a decrease in respiratory rate or apnea.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Increasing doses of alfaxalone combined with hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine increased the success rate of endoscopic-guided orotracheal intubation. Increasing the dose of alfaxalone had no effect on respiratory rate.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of a priming dose of alfaxalone on the total anesthetic induction dose for and cardiorespiratory function of sedated healthy cats.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES

For this crossover study, cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and methadone administered IM. Cats next received a priming induction dose of alfaxalone (0.25 mg/kg, IV) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.025 mL/kg, IV) over 60 seconds and then an induction dose of alfaxalone (0.5 mg/kg/min, IV) until orotracheal intubation was achieved. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at baseline (immediately prior to priming agent administration), immediately after priming agent administration, after orotracheal intubation, and every 2 minutes until extubation. The total induction dose of alfaxalone was compared between the 2 priming agents.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD total anesthetic induction dose of alfaxalone was significantly lower when cats received a priming dose of alfaxalone (0.98 ± 0.28 mg/kg), compared with when cats received a priming dose of saline solution (1.41 ± 0.17 mg/kg). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher when alfaxalone was used as the priming dose. No cats became apneic or had a hemoglobin oxygen saturation of < 90%. Expired volume per minute was not significantly different between the 2 priming agents.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of a priming dose of alfaxalone to healthy sedated cats reduced the total dose of alfaxalone needed to achieve orotracheal intubation, maintained mean arterial blood pressure, and did not adversely impact the measured respiratory variables.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research