OBJECTIVE To describe the technique and outcome for male dogs undergoing rigid urethrocystoscopy via a novel percutaneous, fluoroscopic-assisted perineal approach.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 19 client-owned male dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records of male dogs that underwent urethrocystoscopy via a percutaneous perineal approach for treatment of a variety of conditions from 2005 through 2014 were reviewed. Signalment, history, pertinent diagnostic imaging results, endourologic and postprocedure details, duration of hospitalization, complications, and outcome (short-term, < 1 month; long-term, ≥ 1 month) were recorded. After flexible urethrocystoscopy, direct percutaneous perineal needle puncture and guidewire placement by means of fluoroscopic guidance (with or without ultrasonography) allowed access to the urethral lumen. The perineal tract was subsequently serially dilated to accommodate a peel-away sheath and rigid endoscope. Rigid urethrocystoscopy was performed, and on completion of endourologic procedures, the access site was left to heal by second intention.
RESULTS 19 male dogs successfully underwent 20 procedures. No intraoperative complications were reported. Short-term outcome was good (ie, mild perineal urine leakage) for 3 dogs and excellent (ie, no abnormalities with urination) for 16. Long-term outcome was excellent for the 17 dogs for which follow-up information was available.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A percutaneous fluoroscopic-assisted perineal approach (with or without ultrasonography) allowed access to the pelvic urethra with no major complications in the present series of patients. This minimally invasive approach may be a valuable tool for endourologic procedures in male dogs.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was referred for evaluation of azotemia and unilateral hydronephrosis.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Abdominal ultrasonography revealed right-sided hydronephrosis and dilation of the proximal aspect of the ureter; the left kidney was small with irregular margins. A highly vascular, irregular retroperitoneal mass, not clearly associated with the ureteral obstruction, was also visualized. Surgical exploration confirmed a retroperitoneal mass involving the caudal mesenteric artery and both ureters, with hydroureter on the right side.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME A subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device was surgically implanted to treat right ureteral obstruction, and the mass was biopsied. Shortly after surgery, progressive azotemia and hyperkalemia were detected; ultrasonographic examination revealed left-sided hydronephrosis and hydroureter, which was suspected secondary to inflammation of the mass causing a left-sided ureteral obstruction. A second surgery was performed to place an SUB device for the left kidney and remove the retroperitoneal mass; both ureters were ligated at the mid- and distal aspects and then transected and removed with the mass. A neuroendocrine paraganglioma was identified by histopathologic evaluation of the mass. Hydronephrosis improved (right kidney) or resolved (left kidney) after surgery, and azotemia improved. Chemotherapeutic intervention was declined. Markers of renal function were static during the 14-month follow-up period. At the last follow-up evaluation, the patient was reportedly doing well, and both SUB devices were patent.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE This was the first report of retroperitoneal paraganglioma in a domestic cat causing bilateral ureteral obstruction. Bilateral SUB device placement enabled en bloc mass resection and provided long-term relief of ureteral obstruction.
Case Description—A dog was examined because of a 6-month history of upper airway stridor that began after postoperative regurgitation of gastric contents.
Clinical Findings—Constant stridor was evident during inspiration and expiration, although it was worse during inspiration. The stridor was no longer evident when the dog's mouth was manually held open. Computed tomography, rhinoscopy, and fluoroscopy were used to confirm a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis.
Treatment and Outcome—The dog was anesthetized, and balloon dilatation of the stenosis was performed. Prednisone was prescribed for 4 weeks after the procedure to decrease fibrous tissue formation. Although the dog was initially improved, signs recurred 3.5 weeks later, and balloon dilatation was repeated. This time, however, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Two months later, although the dog did not have clinical signs of stridor, a third dilatation procedure was performed because mild stenosis was seen on follow-up computed tomographic images; again, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Three and 6 months after the third dilatation procedure, the dog reportedly was clinically normal.
Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that balloon dilatation may be an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs.
A 6-year-old 17-kg (37.4-lb) spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of swelling and intermittent lameness of the right pelvic limb and perianal and vulvar bleeding caused by a suspected arteriovenous malformation.
The right pelvic limb had a diffuse, raised, cobblestone-like appearance with lameness, edema, and multifocal ulcerations. The abdominal skin had multifocal circular erythematous lesions, the perianal region was erythematous, and the vestibule had superficial distended vessels. Ultrasonography and CT did not reveal the presence of an arteriovenous malformation; however, digital subtraction venography confirmed the presence of a venous malformation (VM) throughout the limb.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A mixture of foam sclerosant (1.5% sodium tetradecyl sulfate) and contrast medium was agitated with air and injected percutaneously into the VM. The dog received an injection of corticosteroid solution, and a soft-padded bandage was applied to the limb for 3 days. Six weeks later, the dog would intermittently hop when running, and the limb was mildly edematous with ecchymotic lesions; the swelling and lameness had improved considerably. Perianal and vulvar bleeding and dilation of the vestibular vessels had resolved. At 21 months after the procedure, examination revealed no right pelvic limb lameness related to the VM; only small cyst-like lesions and edema around the tarsus remained.
The favorable clinical outcome for this dog for a 21-month period after treatment of a pelvic limb VM with foam sclerotherapy has suggested that foam sclerotherapy may be used to successfully treat limb VMs in some dogs.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 15-month-old male Newfoundland was examined because of an inability to urinate, lethargy, inappetence, and intermittent vomiting that first became evident after bilateral cryptorchidectomy 2 days previously. The patient was referred for further evaluation and treatment.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Results of physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, and abdominocentesis led to a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. Retrograde cystography indicated urinary tract obstruction. In view of the history of recent elective cryptorchidectomy, a diagnosis of uroperitoneum with urethral obstruction secondary to iatrogenic prostatectomy and urethrectomy was made.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME During a ventral midline celiotomy, the inadvertent prostatectomy and urethrectomy were found to have resulted in insufficient urethral length for primary repair. Surgical repair of the urethral defect was achieved by means of a novel technique of bladder retroversion and neourethrocystostomy at the apex of the bladder. A urethral stricture evident 1.5 months after surgery was initially treated with balloon dilatation, followed by temporary and then permanent placement of a self-expanding metallic stent. At the last follow-up 6.6 years after stent placement, the dog remained continent while receiving phenylpropanolamine and the owner was highly satisfied with the outcome.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caudal intraabdominal bladder retroversion with apex neourethrocystostomy may be a viable alternative to more complex urethral lengthening procedures in dogs and can potentially preserve lower urinary tract function. This treatment might be considered for patients with urethral trauma or malignant neoplasia necessitating extensive urethral resection. Urethral strictures may be effectively managed with stenting.
Case Description—An 11-year-old castrated male mixed-breed dog was examined for a 3-month history of hematochezia and tenesmus. Abdominal ultrasonography and rectal examination prior to referral had revealed a colorectal polyp, diagnosed as a benign colorectal polypoid adenoma after histologic examination of tissue samples. The patient was referred for treatment.
Clinical Findings—A 2-cm-diameter sessile polypoid mass was located approximately 6 cm orad to the anus in the right dorsolateral region of the descending colon just caudal to the pubis. There was no evidence of metastasis on thoracic radiography or abdominal ultrasonography. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis were within reference limits.
Treatment and Outcome—Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and snare electrocautery were used to resect the mass and a definitive histopathologic diagnosis of a sessile colorectal polypoid adenoma was made. A 9.9-mm gastroduodenoscope was used during colonoscopy to inspect the mass. To aid in EMR, a 25-gauge endoscopic injection needle was used to infuse sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution under the base of the polyp, into the submucosa to elevate the mucosa from the muscularis layer beneath the polyp prior to polypectomy. This was necessary because of the sessile, rather than pedunculated, base of the mass. The entire polyp was successfully removed with endoscopic guidance. The clinical signs of hematochezia and tenesmus resolved immediately, and serial rectal examinations were performed over the following 36 months with no palpable evidence of recurrence.
Clinical Relevance—The patient described in the present report underwent successful colonic EMR and snare polypectomy with no known evidence of mass recurrence during the following 36 months, suggesting that this minimally invasive procedure may be a valuable treatment option for sessile polyps. The advantage of this technique was that elevation of the mucosa via injection of saline solution improved visibility of the polyp and helped to separate the polyp base from the deeper submucosal colorectal tissue, making complete resection possible.
A 5-year-old spayed female Maltese mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation because of severe urinary incontinence refractory to medical management.
Physical examination revealed constant dribbling of urine and urine scalding. Culture of a urine sample yielded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Proteus mirabilis. Abdominal ultrasonographic examination revealed absence of the left kidney, a small, nondistended urinary bladder, and diffuse hepatopathy. Urinary incontinence persisted despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Cystourethroscopy and vaginoscopy were subsequently performed and revealed a hypoplastic bladder and a vesicovaginal fistula with urinary leakage through the vaginal diverticulum; no left ureterovesicular junction was identified, consistent with suspected left renal aplasia.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and the cranial aspect of the vagina was circumferentially ligated immediately caudal to the fistula. The urinary incontinence resolved immediately after surgery, and lower urinary tract signs improved over the next 2 weeks. Moderate urinary incontinence recurred approximately 6 months later, and a urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli was subsequently identified and treated; clinical signs resolved ≤ 48 hours after treatment was initiated.
To the author's knowledge, vesicovaginal fistulas in dogs have not been previously described and should be considered a differential diagnosis for persistent urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infections in female dogs. Vaginoscopy in addition to cystourethroscopy was required to identify the abnormality in this patient. Because multiple concurrent anomalies can be present, both procedures should be performed in female dogs with these clinical signs, even if an abnormality is identified cystoscopically.