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  • Author or Editor: Chi-Ya Chen x
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CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 1-week history of respiratory distress and abdominal distension. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography at that time revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette and pericardial effusion; abdominal radiography and ultrasonography revealed ascites.

CLINICAL FINDINGS At the initial referral examination 5 weeks later, the dog weighed 37.5 kg (82.5 lb) and appeared clinically normal. The only abnormality detected was a grade I/VI systolic murmur on the left side of the thorax. Echocardiography revealed a large fat- and fluid-filled cystic structure located next to the right ventricle with scant pericardial effusion. Computed tomography revealed a bilobed peripherally contrast-enhancing structure within the right ventral aspect of the pericardium; the right ventricle appeared compressed by the cyst.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial treatment consisted of pericardiocentesis and abdominocentesis to alleviate clinical signs. Thoracoscopic subtotal pericardectomy was performed 6 weeks after the initial treatment. The cyst was completely excised, and multiple adhesions between the visceral and parietal pericardium were transected, without surgical or anesthetic complications. Histologic examination of the cyst revealed chronic inflammation with histiocytic infiltration, suggesting possible foreign body reaction or chronic inflammation and hemorrhage. These findings supported a diagnosis of cystic hematoma of the pericardium. The dog remained clinically normal for at least 16 months after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE This report represents a rare case of intrapericardial cystic hematoma in a dog. Minimally invasive surgery was performed without complications, suggesting that thoracoscopic subtotal pericardectomy is a feasible treatment option for affected dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a high-fidelity simulated laparoscopic ovariectomy (SLO) model for surgical training and testing.

DESIGN Evaluation study.

SAMPLE 15 veterinary students (novice group), 5 veterinary surgical interns or residents (intermediate group), and 6 veterinary surgeons (experienced group).

PROCEDURES Laparoscopic surgery experience was assessed by questionnaire and visual analog scales. Basic laparoscopic skills were assessed with a commercial training model. A commercial canine abdomen model was customized with a high-fidelity simulated canine female genital tract. Each subject's SLO performance (laparoscopic entry, dissection along marked planes, and left ovariectomy) was evaluated by measurement of surgical time and errors (splenic puncture and deviation from dissection marks) and with global and operative component rating scales. Construct and concurrent validity were assessed by correlation of SLO results with self-estimated measures of experience level and with basic laparoscopic skills test results, respectively. Face validity was assessed with a questionnaire completed by intermediate and experienced group participants.

RESULTS 13 participants (3/15, 5/5, and 5/6 in the novice, intermediate, and experienced groups, respectively) completed SLO within the preset time. No difference in errors was found among groups. Completion time was significantly correlated with self-estimated experience level (r = −0.626), confirming construct validity, and with basic laparoscopic skills scores (r = −0.552) and global (r = −0.624) and operative component (r = −0.624) rating scale scores, confirming concurrent validity. Overall mean face validity score was low (64.2/100); usefulness of the model for surgical training received the highest score (8/10).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested the SLO model may be a useful surgical training tool. Further studies are needed to confirm usefulness of the model in veterinary laparoscopy training.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association