Objective—To establish reference values for electrodiagnostic
evaluation of peripheral nerve function in birds.
Animals—6 rheas and 6 barred owls.
Procedure—Birds were anesthetized with propofol or
isoflurane in oxygen. Using a computer-based electromyograph
system and needle electrodes for stimulation
and recording, electromyography (EMG) was
performed on the pectoral, biceps brachialis, and gastrocnemius
muscles, and evoked EMG was performed
on the tibial and ulnar nerves. Motor nerve conduction
velocity (MNCV) was calculated. Repetitive stimulation
was performed on these 2 nerves. Late F waves were
recorded for each nerve, when possible.
Results—Activity was evident during insertion of the
electrodes, but muscles tested were electrically quiescent
after spontaneous EMG. Motor nerve conduction
velocity was faster in the tibial nerve than ulnar
nerve but did not differ significantly between species.
Mean ± SEM MNCV was 132.3 ±± 7.8 m/s for the tibial
nerve and 59.7 ± 7.8 m/s for the ulnar nerve. A significant
difference was not observed in responses at
the fourth or ninth stimulation during repetitive stimulation.
Subsequent to the initial stimulation, amplitudes
were ± 22.7% of the initial motor potential
amplitude. Recorded F waves were inconsistent,
which may have been associated with technique.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference
range (mean ± 2 SEM) for MNCV was 34.1 to
75.3 m/s for the ulnar nerve and 116.7 to 147.9 m/s
for the tibial nerve in barred owls and rheas. After
repetitive stimulation, motor potential amplitudes
may be ± 22.7% of the initial amplitude response.
(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:469–472)
Objective—To determine clinical signs, results of
diagnostic testing, underlying cause, and outcome in
cats with seizures.
Animals—17 cats with seizures.
Procedure—Only those cats in which an underlying
metabolic abnormality causing the seizures had been
identified, diagnostic imaging of the brain and CSF analysis
had been done, or a necropsy had been performed
were included. Seizures were classified as being a result
of metabolic disease, symptomatic epilepsy (ie, epilepsy
resulting from a structural lesion of the brain), or probably
symptomatic epilepsy (ie, epilepsy without any
extracranial or identifiable intracranial disease that is not
suspected to be genetic in origin).
Results—3 cats had seizures associated with an
underlying metabolic disease (hepatic encephalopathy),
7 had symptomatic epilepsy (3 with neoplasia and
4 with meningoencephalitis), and 7 had probably symptomatic
epilepsy. Six of the 7 cats with symptomatic
epilepsy died or were euthanatized within 3 months
after the diagnosis was made, whereas 6 of the 7 cats
with probably symptomatic epilepsy survived for at
least 12 months after the diagnosis was made.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that cats with probably symptomatic epilepsy
may have a good long-term prognosis. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To determine the protein and cellular
composition of CSF in healthy adult ferrets.
Animals—42 clinically normal adult ferrets.
Procedure—CSF samples were collected from the
cerebellomedullary cistern of anesthetized ferrets by
use of disposable 25-gauge, 1.6-cm-long hypodermic
needles. Samples were processed within 20 minutes
after collection. The number of WBCs and RBCs per
microliter of CSF was counted by use of a hemacytometer.
The total protein concentration was determined
by use of an automated chemistry analyzer.
Results—Total WBC counts (range, 0 to 8 cells/µL;
mean, 1.59 cells/µL) in CSF of ferrets were similar to reference
range values obtained for CSF from other
species. Twenty-seven CSF samples had < 100 RBCs/µL
(mean, 20.3 RBCs/µL). A small but significant effect of
blood contamination on WBC counts was found
between the 27 CSF samples with < 100 RBCs/µL and
the remaining samples. Protein concentrations in CSF of
ferrets (range, 28.0 to 68.0 mg/dL; mean, 31.4 mg/dL)
were higher than has been reported for the CSF of dogs
and cats. A significant effect of blood contamination on
the CSF protein concentration was not found.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—
established reference range values for WBC counts
and protein concentrations in CSF from healthy adult
ferrets that may be useful in the clinical investigation
of CNS disease. Results of our study indicate that the
WBC count is significantly affected by blood contamination
of the CSF sample. (Am J Vet Res
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2
groups of 3 dogs in a crossover design. Diazepam
(0.5 mg/kg of body weight) was administered intravenously
to dogs in group 1 and intranasally to dogs
in group 2. Blood was collected from the jugular vein
of each dog into tubes containing lithium heparin
before and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 240, and
480 minutes following diazepam administration. After
a 4-day washout period, dogs in group 1 received
diazepam intranasally, dogs in group 2 received
diazepam intravenously, and blood was again collected.
Plasma concentration of BDZ was determined by
use of a fluorescence polarization immunoassay.
Results—Mean (± SD) peak plasma concentration of
BDZ following IV administration (1316 ± 216 µg/L)
was greater than that following IN administration
(448 ± 41 µg/L). Time to peak concentration was ≤ 3
minutes following IV administration and 4.5 ± 1.5
minutes following IN administration. Mean bioavailability
of BDZ following IN administration was
80 ± 9%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diazepam is
rapidly and efficiently absorbed following IN administration
of the parenteral formulation. Plasma concentrations
match or exceed the suggested therapeutic
concentration (300 µg/L). Intranasal administration of
diazepam may be useful for treatment of seizures in
dogs by owners or when intravenous access is not
readily available. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:651–654)