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  • Author or Editor: Cheng-Chung Lin x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the feasibility of CT lymphangiography via intrametatarsal pad injection in cats with chylothorax.


7 client-owned cats.


This was a multicenter, retrospective, descriptive study. Medical records and imaging data from 4 veterinary hospitals were reviewed to identify cats with chylothorax that had undergone intrametatarsal pad injection via CT lymphangiography. In total, 7 client-owned cats were included in the study. Signalment, history, image findings, and follow-up data were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the success rate of thoracic duct (TD) enhancement and describe relevant clinical findings.


Enhancement of TDs was successful in 6 of the 7 cats within 5 to 15 minutes after initiating intrametatarsal pad injection under general anesthesia. Successful migration of contrast medium into the lymphatic vessels cranial to the popliteal lymph nodes was observed in all cats within 5 minutes after injection. The recommended dose of contrast medium to achieve TD enhancement was 1 mL/kg (0.5 mL/kg/pad; concentration, 350 mg of iodine/kg). Only 1 cat had mild swelling of the paws after the procedure, and it recovered quickly without pain medication; no cats experienced lameness. Similar to dogs and unlike in previously published reports, 72% of TD branches were located in the right hemithorax.


CT lymphangiography via intrametatarsal pad injection is a feasible and safe procedure for cats with chylothorax. This technique provides detailed information regarding the unique TD anatomy and cisterna chyli location. It also contributes to surgical planning.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To investigate the antitumor effect of the chicken anemia virus (CAV) VP3 gene in canine mammary tumor (CMT) cells.

Sample Populations—Established primary canine cell lines that originated from epithelial cells of resected CMTs and nonneoplastic mammary gland epithelial (MGE) cells.

Procedures—Expression vectors and lentiviral vectors encoding the VP3 gene from a Taiwan-Ilan isolate of CAV were used to deliver the VP3 gene into CMT cells and nonneoplastic MGE cells. Ectopic gene expression and the pro-apoptotic effect of the VP3 gene on CMT and nonneoplastic MGE cells by either transfection or viral infection were evaluated via immunofluorescence microscopy, western blot analysis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis.

Results—Overexpression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein–VP3 fusion protein was detected predominantly in the nuclei of CMT cells. In contrast, the VP3 protein was localized to the cytoplasm of nonneoplastic MGE cells. Among the fusion protein–expressing CMT cells, most underwent characteristic changes of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was not detected in fusion protein–expressing, nonneoplastic MGE cells. Induction of apoptosis by VP3 gene overexpression in CMT cells was associated with the caspase-9–, but not the caspase-8–, mediated apoptosis pathway.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data indicate that the VP3 gene of the CAV induces apoptosis in malignant CMT cells, but not in nonneoplastic canine MGE cells. On the basis of such tumor cell–specific killing, the VP3 gene may be a promising agent for the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research