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Objective—To assess the influence of age on pulmonary hemodynamics and hemorheological properties in healthy dogs.
Animals—14 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—Dogs were placed in 2 age groups as follows: young dogs (≤ 5 years old; n = 8) and old dogs (≥ 8 years old; 6). Hematologic characteristics, plasma total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, and blood viscosity were measured. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow were recorded by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Early (E′) and late (A′) diastolic myocardial velocities, isovolumic contraction velocity, and systolic myocardial velocity of the free tricuspid annulus were recorded by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Dogs were anesthetized and pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) and cardiac output were recorded with a pediatric thermodilution Swan-Ganz catheter.
Results—Hemorheological measurements were not different between the 2 groups. Systolic, mean, and diastolic PAP were higher in old dogs, compared with values in young dogs; this difference was attributed to a high pulmonary vascular resistance and low arterial compliance in old dogs. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow stayed unchanged. The A′ wave of the free tricuspid annulus was increased in old, compared with that young dogs, and the E′:A′ ratio was decreased. Pulmonary vascular resistance was inversely correlated with compliance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The age of dogs should be taken into account when interpreting pulmonary hemodynamic results and TDI variables of right ventricular diastolic function.
Objective—To evaluate a human assay for quantification of carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), assess the influence of age on plasma CTX-I concentration, investigate the relationship between plasma CTX-I and serum osteocalcin concentrations, and determine whether concentrations of plasma CTX-I or serum osteocalcin fluctuate in circadian manner in horses.
Horses—75 clinically normal horses.
Procedure—Cross-reactivity between equine serum CTX-I and CTX-I antibodies in an automated electrochemiluminescent sandwich antibody assay (ECLIA) was evaluated via a specificity test (ie, dilution test) and recovery calculation. Serum osteocalcin concentration was measured with an equine-specific osteocalcin radioimmunoassay. To analyze diurnal variations in plasma CTX-I and serum osteocalcin concentrations, blood samples were obtained hourly during a 24-hour period.
Results—Results of the dilution test indicated good correlation ( r > 0.99) between expected serum CTX-I concentrations and measured serum CTX-I concentrations. The calculated CTX-I recovery was 97.6% to 109.9%. Plasma CTX-I and serum osteocalcin concentrations were correlated. Plasma CTX-I concentration was inversely correlated with age of the horse. No significant circadian variations in plasma CTX-I and serum osteocalcin concentrations were detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the fully automated CTX-I ECLIA can be used for evaluation of plasma and serum samples from horses and may be a useful tool to monitor bone metabolism changes. Horses in this study did not have notable diurnal fluctuations in serum osteocalcin and plasma CTX-I concentrations. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:104–109)
To evaluate the effects of using ropivacaine combined with dexmedetomidine for sciatic and saphenous nerve blocks in dogs.
7 healthy adult Beagles.
In phase 1, dogs received each of the following 3 treatments in random order: perineural sciatic and saphenous nerve injections of 0.5% ropivacaine (0.4 mL/kg) mixed with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.04 mL/kg; DEX0PN), 0.5% ropivacaine mixed with dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; DEX1PN), and 0.5% ropivacaine mixed with dexmedetomidine (2 µg/kg; DEX2PN). In phase 2, dogs received perineural sciatic and saphenous nerve injections of 0.5% ropivacaine and an IV injection of diluted dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; DEX1IV). For perineural injections, the dose was divided equally between the 2 sites. Duration of sensory blockade was evaluated, and plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were measured.
Duration of sensory blockade was significantly longer with DEX1PN and DEX2PN, compared with DEX0PN; DEX1IV did not prolong duration of sensory blockade, compared with DEX0PN. Peak plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were reached after 15 minutes with DEX1PN (mean ± SD, 348 ± 200 pg/mL) and after 30 minutes DEX2PN (816 ± 607 pg/mL), and bioavailability was 54 ± 40% and 73 ± 43%, respectively. The highest plasma dexmedetomidine concentration was measured with DEX1IV (1,032 ± 415 pg/mL) 5 minutes after injection.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that perineural injection of 0.5% ropivacaine in combination with dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) for locoregional anesthesia in dogs seemed to balance the benefit of prolonging sensory nerve blockade while minimizing adverse effects.
OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement. Neurologic examinations were performed 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after the injection. In dogs with neurologic abnormalities, a final neurologic examination was performed 24 days after the procedure.
RESULTS Methylprednisolone injections were successfully performed in 14 of the 15 dogs. In 1 dog, vascular puncture occurred, and the methylprednisolone injection was not performed. No major or minor complications were identified during or immediately after the procedure, other than mild transient hyperthermia. During follow-up neurologic examinations, no motor, sensory, or postural deficits were identified, other than mild alterations in the patellar, withdrawal, cranial tibial, and perineal reflexes in some dogs. Overall, altered reflexes were observed in 11 of the 14 dogs, during 27 of 65 neurologic examinations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate were associated with few complications in healthy dogs. However, the number of dogs evaluated was small, and additional studies are needed to assess clinical efficacy and safety of these procedures.