OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy of an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) with positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEPs) in anesthetized horses ventilated with oxygen or heliox (70% helium and 30% oxygen).
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, horses were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Volume-controlled ventilation was performed with heliox or oxygen (fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio2] > 90%). Sixty minutes after mechanical ventilation commenced, an ARM with PEEP (0 to 30 cm H2O in steps of 5 cm H2O every 5 minutes, followed by incremental steps back to 0 cm H2O) was performed. Peak inspiratory pressure, dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), and Pao2 were measured during each PEEP. Indices of pulmonary oxygen exchange and alveolar dead space were calculated. Variables were compared with baseline values (PEEP, 0 cm H2O) and between ventilation gases by use of repeated-measures ANOVAs.
RESULTS For both ventilation gases, ARM significantly increased pulmonary oxygen exchange indices and Cdyn. Mean ± SD Cdyn (506 ± 35 mL/cm H2O) and Pao2-to-Fio2 ratio (439 ± 36) were significantly higher and alveolar-arterial difference in Pao2 (38 ± 11 mm Hg) was significantly lower for heliox, compared with values for oxygen (357 ± 50 mL/cm H2O, 380 ± 92, and 266 ± 88 mm Hg, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE An ARM in isoflurane-anesthetized horses ventilated with heliox significantly improved pulmonary oxygen exchange and respiratory mechanics by decreasing resistive properties of the respiratory system and reducing turbulent gas flow in small airways.
Objective—To determine characteristics of the inflammatory reaction in the jejunum of horses in response to various mechanical manipulations.
Animals—12 adult warmblood horses without gastrointestinal tract disorders.
Procedures—The proximal aspect of the jejunum in each horse was divided into 5 segments, and the following manipulations were performed: manual emptying, placement of Doyen forceps, enterotomy alone, enterotomy with mucosal abrasion, and serosal abrasion. Jejunum samples were collected before (control), immediately after, and 30 minutes after the end of manipulations and histologically evaluated to determine distribution of neutrophils and eosinophils.
Results—Macroscopically, all manipulations resulted in jejunal hemorrhage and edema. Compared with control samples, neutrophil numbers were significantly higher after manipulations in the serosa (after all manipulation types), circular muscle layer (after manual emptying), submucosa (after placement of Doyen forceps), and mucosa (after all manipulations except enterotomy alone). Eosinophil numbers were significantly higher in the submucosa after mechanical abrasion of the serosa and manual emptying versus control samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated mechanical manipulation of the jejunum resulted in local inflammatory reactions characterized predominantly by infiltration of neutrophils. This could contribute to the development of postoperative ileus or adhesions in horses without macroscopically detectable injury of the jejunum during surgery.