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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare ex vivo postimplantation biomechanical characteristics of 3 implants for canine total hip replacement: a cementless press-fit femoral stem with a pin in the femoral neck (p-pfFS), a press-fit cementless femoral stem without this pin (pfFS), and a cemented femoral stem (cFS).

SAMPLE

18 cadaveric femurs from 9 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Femurs were assigned randomly to 3 groups, and biomechanical testing was performed by measuring vertical displacement during cyclic loading and resistance to failure with compression parallel to the longitudinal axis of the femur. Force-displacement curves were assessed for failure tests, and work necessary for failure was calculated.

RESULTS

No significant differences were observed in vertical displacement during cyclic loading (P = .263) or work necessary for failure (P = .079). Loads to failure for cFS and p-pfFS implants were significantly greater than that for the pfFS, but no significant difference in load to failure was observed between cFS and p-pfFS implants (P = .48).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cementless femoral stems with a transfixation pin offer significantly greater immediate resistance to failure to compressive loads parallel to the longitudinal axis of the femur than standard cementless stems, and a level of stability comparable to that of cemented stems. p-pfFS implants may be valuable in total hip replacement, potentially reducing the risk of fracture during the early postoperative period prior to osteointegration.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Interarcuate branch (IAB) is a vascular structure, particularly developed in C2-3 intervertebral space, forming a dorsal bridge that connects ventral venous plexi in the vertebral canal. While precisely described in the human, the precise anatomical features of IABs have not been reported in the veterinary literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the features and relations of IABs in the C2-3 vertebral canal.

ANIMALS

10 dogs were enrolled; 5 dogs for necropsy and 5 dogs for histology.

PROCEDURES

The ventral venous plexi in the cervical spine of 5 dogs were injected with latex and underwent vertebral canal dissection for visual assessment of the IAB. Two out of 5 dogs were injected with the addition of barium sulfate and underwent a CT scan. The C2-3 regions of 5 small-breed dogs were harvested for histological examinations.

RESULTS

IABs arose from the ventral venous plexus at the level of the intervertebral vein; they originated from 2 separate branches located caudally and cranially to the intervertebral foramen, forming a ventrodorsal triangle surrounding the spinal nerve root. No dorsal anastomosis was observed on the CT scan nor at dissection but were observed histologically. A cervical fibrous sheath was observed all around the vertebral canal.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IABs are voluminous venous structures at the C2-3 intervertebral space in dogs and found within a split of the cervical fibrous sheath, which is adherent to the interarcuate ligament and the ligamentum flavum. This anatomical description is paramount when planning an approach to the C2-3 intervertebral space.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the effect of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in dogs with bucket handle meniscal tears and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), compared with dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture and no meniscal tear treated by TPLO alone.

ANIMALS

30 client-owned dogs with cranial cruciate rupture treated by either TPLO and arthroscopy alone if the meniscus was normal (normal meniscus [NM] group, n = 14) or by TPLO and an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy if a bucket handle tear was diagnosed (meniscal tear [MT] group, n = 16).

METHODS

Medical records, lameness score, and symmetry gait analysis parameters were retrospectively collected from patient records preoperatively (PreO), then at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively (M1, M3, and M6, respectively). Osteoarthritic (OA) radiographic score was performed and compared at PreO and M6.

RESULTS

PreO gait analysis parameters were lower in the MT group (P < 0.005). In the MT group, the lameness score significantly improved between PreO and M1, and there were no significant differences between groups at M6. OA score was significantly higher in the MT group at PreO and M6. However, postoperative progression of OA did not differ between the 2 groups (P = 0.16).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Treatment for meniscal tear results in a significant improvement in lameness, with postoperative outcomes at 6 months comparable with dogs with intact menisci. Despite having significant osteoarthritic lesions at all time points, the progression of osteoarthritis is similar between dogs with meniscal tears and those with intact menisci.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To identify the effect of Pasteurella haemolytica lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and leukotoxin (LKT) on spontaneous and calcium ionophore-induced histamine and inflammatory mediator release from isolated bovine lung parenchyma.

Sample Population

Lungs from 8 healthy cattle.

Procedure

Isolated bovine lung parenchyma was incubated in vitro for 2 hours with LKT or LPS, and spontaneous and induced release of inflammatory mediators was determined.

Results

LKT and LPS increased spontaneous release of histamine and leukotriene B4. In addition, incubation with LPS increased spontaneous release of prostaglandin E2. Moreover, a differential effect of the 2 toxins on calcium ionophore-induced inflammatory mediator release was observed. LKT specifically primed isolated lung parenchyma to release leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 in response to calcium ionophore, whereas LPS did not alter the profile of prostanoids released by bovine lung tissue exposed to calcium ionophore.

Conclusions

Pasteurella haemolytica toxins have a direct effect on bovine lung parenchyma, causing release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to response to infection. Furthermore, bacterial toxins (LKT in this study) may sensitize tissues to the effects of other irritant stimuli, amplifying the inflammatory response. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1227–1231)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report indications, outcomes, and complications with a precontoured angle-stable interlocking nail (CAS-ILN).

ANIMALS

90 client-owned animals.

METHODS

Dogs and cats treated with the CAS-ILN between 2020 and 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. Collected data included body weight, fracture configuration, percentage of medullary canal filled, limb alignment, complications, and follow-up. Favorable outcomes were defined when full functional restoration was observed.

RESULTS

Thirty-eight dogs and 52 cats were included. Median body weight was 4.3 kg (range, 1.5 to 6.7 kg) for cats and 25 kg (range, 6.8 to 54 kg) for dogs. A total of 54 femurs, 31 tibias, and 5 humeri were treated, including 65 comminuted fractures and 26 metaphyseal fractures. The median percentage of medullary canal occupied by the nail was 76.5% (range, 53% to 97.6%). Radiographic postoperative bone alignment was good in 85.5% (59/69) and satisfactory in 10 cases. The median duration of follow-up (57/90) was 476 days (range, 56 to 1,057 days). In the perioperative period (0 to 12 weeks), lameness had resolved or was mild in all (51/52) but 1 case. In the long-term postoperative period (> 12 months), 97.1% (34/35) of cases showed restoration of full function and 1 case had an unacceptable function. An overall complication rate of 11.5% (7/61) was reported including 1 catastrophic and 6 major complications.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Long-term functional outcomes following the CAS-ILN were favorable in 97.1% (34/35) of cases. Complication rates were comparable to previous studies. The CAS-ILN appears to be an alternative surgical option for most long-bone fracture repairs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research