Objective—To evaluate associations between Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) and caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) test results in cattle.
Design—Longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluations.
Animals—1 California (approx 3,600 cows) and 3 Colorado (approx 640, 1,190, and 1,480 cows) dairy herds considered free of Mycobacterium bovis infection.
Procedures—In the California herd, the association between CFT response and MAP status was determined with ELISA and mycobacterial culture of feces within 1 year before and after CFT testing. The association between CFT and MAP status in all herds was modeled with mixed-effects logistic regression.
Results—In the California herd, significantly higher odds of being classified as suspect by CFT were found for cows with results of MAP ELISA negative before and positive after CFT testing (OR, 5.6) and cows positive before and after CFT testing (OR, 8.1). Higher odds were found for cows positive for mycobacterial culture of feces before and negative for culture after CFT testing (OR, 4.6) and cows negative for mycobacterial culture of feces before and positive for culture after CFT testing (OR, 13.2). All herds had higher odds of being classified as suspect by CFT testing for cows with positive results for ELISA (OR, 2.9) or mycobacterial culture of feces (OR, 5.0), compared with cows with negative results of the same tests.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A strong association was found between positive MAP test results and being classified as a suspect by CFT testing. Within-herd MAP prevalence may affect specificity of CFT testing for tuberculosis in cattle.
Objective—To develop a better system for classification of herd infection status for paratuberculosis (Johne's disease [JD]) in US cattle herds on the basis of the risk of potential transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratubeculosis.
Sample—Simulated data for herd size and within-herd prevalence; sensitivity and specificity for test methods obtained from consensus-based estimates.
Procedures—Interrelationships among variables influencing interpretation and classification of herd infection status for JD were evaluated by use of simulated data for various herd sizes, true within-herd prevalences, and sampling and testing methods. The probability of finding ≥ 1 infected animal in herds was estimated for various testing methods and sample sizes by use of hypergeometric random sampling.
Results—2 main components were required for the new herd JD classification system: the probability of detection of infection determined on the basis of test results from a sample of animals and the maximum detected number of animals with positive test results. Tables were constructed of the estimated probability of detection of infection, and the maximum number of cattle with positive test results or fecal pools with positive culture results with 95% confidence for classification of herd JD infection status were plotted. Herd risk for JD was categorized on the basis of 95% confidence that the true within-herd prevalence was ≤ 15%, ≤ 10%, ≤ 5%, or ≤ 2%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the findings indicated that a scientifically rigorous and transparent herd classification system for JD in cattle is feasible.
Objective—To compare calf weaning weight and associated economic variables for beef cows with serum antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) or from which MAP was isolated from feces with those for cows that were seronegative for antibodies against or culture negative for MAP.
Animals—4,842 beef cows from 3 herds enrolled in the USDA National Johne's Disease Demonstration Herd Project.
Procedures—Individual cow ELISA and culture results were obtained from the project database. During each parity evaluated for each cow, the 205-day adjusted weaning weight (AWW) of its calf was calculated. The AWW was compared between test-positive and test-negative cows by use of multilevel mixed-effect models. The median value for feeder calves from 2007 to 2011 was used to estimate the economic losses associated with MAP test–positive cows.
Results—The AWW of calves from cows with strongly positive ELISA results was 21.48 kg (47.26 lb) less than that of calves from cows with negative ELISA results. The AWW of calves from cows classified as heavy or moderate MAP shedders was 58.51 kg (128.72 lb) and 40.81 kg (89.78 lb) less, respectively, than that of calves from MAP culture–negative cows. Associated economic losses were estimated as $57.49/calf for cows with strongly positive ELISA results and $156.60/calf and $109.23/calf for cows classified as heavy and moderate MAP shedders, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Calves from cows with MAP-positive test results had significantly lower AWWs than did calves from cows with MAP-negative test results, which translated into economic losses for MAP-infected beef herds.
Objective—To describe the occurrence of fecal shedding,
persistence of shedding over time, and
serogroup classification of Salmonella spp on a large
number of dairy farms of various sizes.
Sample Population—22,417 fecal samples from cattle
and 4,570 samples from the farm environment on
110 organic and conventional dairy farms in
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York.
Procedure—5 visits were made to each farm at 2-month intervals from August 2000 to October 2001.
Fecal samples from healthy cows, calves, and other
targeted cattle groups and samples from bulk tank
milk, milk line filters, water, feed sources, and pen
floors were collected at each visit. Bacterial culture
was performed at 1 laboratory.
Results—Salmonella spp were isolated from 4.8% of
fecal samples and 5.9% of environmental samples;
92.7% of farms had at least 1 Salmonella-positive sample.
The 75th percentile for median within-herd prevalence
of Salmonella spp in cattle for 5 sampling visits to
a given farm was 2.0% and for maximum within-herd
prevalence of Salmonella spp was 13.6%. Farms with
a median within-herd prevalence of Salmonella spp of
≥ 2.0% accounted for 76.3% of Salmonella-positive
samples. There was no significant difference in the
prevalence of Salmonella spp between conventional
and organic farms. Seasonal differences in Salmonella
shedding were observed. More farms had at least 1
serogroup B isolate than any other serogroup, whereas
serogroup E1 was the most common among all
Salmonella-positive samples. More than 1 serogroup
was isolated on 76.4% of Salmonella-positive farms.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Salmonella
spp were isolated from > 90% of dairy farms; however,
25% of farms accounted for > 75% of
Salmonella-positive samples. This information is critical
for the direction of intervention strategies to
decrease the prevalence of Salmonella spp on dairy
farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:567–573)
Objective—To describe antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Campylobacter spp isolated from dairy cattle and farms managed organically and conventionally in the midwestern and northeastern United States.
Sample Population—128 farms.
Procedure—Samples and data were collected every 2 months from August 2000 to October 2001. Fecal samples were collected from calves and cows. Milk samples were obtained from the bulk tank and milk line filters. Environmental samples were obtained from a water source, feed bunks of lactating cows, and cattle housing areas. Campylobacter identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at a central laboratory by use of microbroth dilution with 2 customized antimicrobial susceptibility panels.
Results—460 and 1,570 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from organic and conventional dairy farms, respectively. Most isolates from both farm types were susceptible to most antimicrobial agents tested, and antimicrobial susceptibility of conventional dairy isolates was decreased, compared with organic dairy isolates. Low proportions of isolates resistant to ampicillin (< 10%) and moderate proportions resistant (30% to 60%) to kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline were observed on both farm types. The proportion of isolates resistant to tetracycline was higher for conventional than organic farms.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Campylobacter isolates from dairy cattle and farms managed organically and conventionally had similar patterns of antimicrobial resistance; the proportion of resistant isolates was higher for conventional than organic farms.