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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of daily topical ocular administration of latanoprost solution on intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy cats and dogs.

Animals—9 domestic shorthair cats and 14 dogs.

Procedure—Latanoprost solution (0.005%) was administered topically to 1 eye (treated) and vehicle to the other eye (control) of all animals once daily in the morning for 8 days. Intraocular pressure was measured twice daily for the 5 days preceding treatment, and IOP, pupillary diameter, conjunctival hyperemia, and blepharospasm were measured 0, 1, 6, and 12 hours after the first 4 treatments and 0 and 12 hours after the final 4 treatments. Measurements continued twice a day for 5 days after treatment was discontinued. Aqueous flare was measured once daily during and for 5 days after the treatment period.

Results—Intraocular pressure and pupillary diameter were significantly decreased in the treated eye of dogs, compared with the control eye. Mild conjunctival hyperemia was also detected, but severity did not differ significantly between eyes. Blepharospasm and aqueous flare were not detected in either eye. Intraocular pressure in cats was not significantly affected by treatment with latanoprost. However, pupillary diameter was significantly decreased in the treated eye, compared with the control eye. Conjunctival hyperemia, aqueous flare, and blepharospasm were not detected in either eye.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Once-daily topical ocular administration of latanoprost solution (0.005%) reduced IOP in healthy dogs without inducing adverse effects but did not affect IOP in healthy cats. Latanoprost may be useful for treating glaucoma in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1220–1224)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

  • Fungal rhinitis-sinusitis is common in dogs and can be a primary infection or secondary to nasal trauma, foreign bodies, or neoplasia.

  • Invasion of bone is usually restricted to the nasal turbinates, but infection may extend through the cribriform plate, palatine bones, or the orbit.

  • Topical treatment may be successful, providing all affected cavities are effectively saturated with antifungal medication.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To use a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) DNA in conjunctiva or cornea from clinically normal cats and cats with conjunctivitis or corneal sequestra.

Samples

Conjunctival snip biopsy specimens from 50 cats with conjunctivitis and 50 clinically normal cats; 28 keratectomy specimens from 26 cats with sequestra, and 13 specimens from clinically normal cats.

Procedure

Tissue specimens were digested, and FHV-1 DNA was amplified, using a double round of PCR. Products were visualized by use of agarose gel electrophoresis.

Results

Polymerase chain reaction was positive in 27 of 50 (54%) conjunctival specimens from cats with conjunctivitis and 6 of 50 (12%) specimens from clinically normal cats. Difference in the results between cats with conjunctivitis and clinically normal cats was statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction was positive in 5 of 28 (18%) corneal specimens from cats with sequestra and 6 of 13 (46%) clinically normal cats. Distribution of positive results between clinically normal cats and those with sequestra was not significant.

Conclusion

Cats with conjunctivitis were more likely to have a positive PCR result than were clinically normal cats, making it likely that FHV-1 was associated with the disease state. Herpesvirus DNA could not be detected in most corneas from cats with sequestra.

Clinical Relevance

Polymerase chain reaction is a useful clinical test for identifying FHV-1 DNA in cats with conjunctivitis, yielding greater sensitivity over that of currently available tests. Herpesvirus may be less of a cause of corneal sequestration in the commonly affected breeds, Himalayan and Persian, than other factors, such as lagophthalmos or corneal metabolic defects. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:338–342)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize features and response to treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) associated with oral administration of etodolac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—65 cases obtained from a survey of veterinary ophthalmologists (group A) and 146 cases reported to Fort Dodge Animal Health (group B).

Procedures—Data analyzed included breed, sex, age, weight, dose and duration of etodolac administration, results of Schirmer tear test at the time of diagnosis and last follow-up, treatments, and response to treatments. Groups A and B were analyzed separately by use of forward stepwise logistic regression models developed to predict probability of complete remission or clinical improvement as a function of several variables.

Results—Most dogs developed severe KCS (84 eyes of 50 dogs [group A]; 111 eyes of 62 dogs [group B]). Resolution of KCS occurred in 7 of 65 (A) and 23 of 146 (B) dogs. No response to treatment was observed in 26 of 65 (A) and 27 of 146 (B) dogs. Fifty-one (A) and 52 (B) dogs had records that were sufficiently complete to use in models. In group B, dogs with etodolac treatment intervals < 6 months prior to the onset of KCS were 4.2 times as likely to have remission as were dogs with treatment intervals ≥ 6 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shorter duration of etodolac administration (< 6 months) was associated with improved outcome in 1 population of dogs. Monitoring of tear production should be considered prior to and during administration of etodolac in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association