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  • Author or Editor: Charles L. Guard x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of biofilm formation under long-term cell culture conditions in serum samples of dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs, and to determine whether there is an association between nanobacteria and biofilm formation.

Sample Population—Serum samples of clinically normal animals (313 dairy cattle, 48 goats, 140 dogs, and 44 cats) and animals with various medical conditions (60 dogs and 116 cats).

Procedure—Serum was incubated under cell culture conditions and observed for biofilm formation by use of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy. A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 16S rRNA gene sequences of nanobacteria.

Results—Biofilm formation developed in serum samples of 304 of 313 (97%) cattle, 44 of 48 (92%) goats, 44 of 44 (100%) cats, and 126 of 140 (90%) dogs. Prevalence of serum samples with positive results for biofilm formation was not significantly different between cats or dogs with and without medical conditions associated with pathologic extraskeletal calcification processes. Scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopy of biofilm samples revealed small coccoid particles consisting mainly of calcium and phosphate. Polymerase chain reaction assay failed to amplify sequences of nanobacteria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under longterm cell culture conditions, biofilm made up of aggregates of calcium and phosphate crystals does form in serum samples of clinically normal dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs. Disease, however, does not predispose to biofilm formation in serum samples of dogs and cats. Our findings did not support the existence of nanobacteria in serum samples of cattle, goats, cats, and dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:176–182)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of udder cleft dermatitis in a dairy herd that was experiencing an outbreak of sarcoptic mange.

Design—Clinical survey.

Animals—1,597 Holstein cows and late-gestation heifers.

Procedure—Animals were examined for udder cleft dermatitis and for skin lesions consistent with sarcoptic or chorioptic mange. Skin scrapings were collected from 56 cows and examined for ectoparasites. The herd was revisited 1 year later, and prevalences of udder cleft dermatitis and lesions consistent with mange were determined in 506 cows.

Results—Of the 1,597 cattle examined, 280 (18%) had udder cleft dermatitis, and 1,397 (87.5%) had lesions consistent with mange. In 43 of 56 (77%) cows, skin scrapings revealed Sarcoptes mites. Udder cleft dermatitis was significantly more common in older than in younger cows. In first-lactation cows, udder cleft dermatitis was less common during the first 4 months of lactation than in the later stages of lactation, but udder cleft dermatitis was identified in cows in all stages of lactation and in cows that were not lactating. The herd was treated with eprinomectin to control mites, and prevalence of lesions consistent with mange 1 year later was only 2.8%. However, prevalence of udder cleft dermatitis was still 12%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cows in any stage of lactation and cows that are not lactating can have udder cleft dermatitis but that lesions are more common in older cows. Control of sarcoptic mange was accompanied by a moderate reduction in the prevalence of udder cleft dermatitis but did not eliminate the condition. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:273–276)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effect of twin birth calvings on milk production, reproductive performance, and survival of lactating cows.

Design—Retrospective observational cohort study.

Animals—33,868 cows from 20 farms.

Procedures—Data on age at calving for primiparous cows and mature equivalent milk yield for multiparous cows, assistance at calving, stillbirths, twin births, gestation duration, pregnancy at the end of the data collection period, and culling-death for all cows were extracted from farm computer records and used for statistical analysis.

Results—Prevalence of twin parturitions was 1.3% (159/12,050) and 6.5% (1,410/21,818) for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. Primiparous and multiparous cows with singletons produced more milk than cows with live twins or at least 1 dead twin (primiparous, 33.1 vs 31.9 vs 31.2; multiparous, 36.5 vs 35.7 vs 35.0). Multiparous cows with dead twins produced less milk than cows with live twins. Compared with dams with singleton birth, cows with twins were 0.78 times as likely to conceive and 1.42 times as likely to die or be culled. Cows with dead twins also had increased time to conception, compared with live twins.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Twin birth was associated with decreased survival, milk production, and reproductive performance. Having at least 1 dead twin was even more detrimental than having live twins and resulted in decreased milk production and reproductive performance of lactating cows.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare agreement between 2 pregnancy tests in dairy cattle.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—976 and 507 cattle for phases 1 and 2, respectively.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected, and palpation per rectum (PPR) was performed on cattle. Blood samples for the pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) ELISA were sent by courier to a commercial laboratory with results returned later. Results of PPR were extracted from herd records. Statistical comparison of results was performed by use of a mixed linear model and N analysis.

Results—Of 571 cattle classified as pregnant by the PSPB ELISA in phase 1, 30 (5%) were nonpregnant by PPR. Mean ± SE adjusted optical density (OD) of cattle classified pregnant by both tests was significantly higher (0.31 ± 0.01), compared with the adjusted OD of cattle classified pregnant by the PSPB ELISA and nonpregnant by PPR (0.22 ± 0.02). Of 255 cows classified pregnant by the PSPB ELISA in phase 2, 31 (12%) were nonpregnant by PPR. Mean ± SE adjusted OD of cattle classified pregnant by both tests was significantly higher (0.26 ± 0.01), compared with the adjusted OD of cattle classified pregnant by the PSPB ELISA and nonpregnant by PPR (0.21 ± 0.01). The N value was 0.82 and 0.81 for phases 1 and 2, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Good agreement existed between the 2 tests, especially at longer intervals after insemination. Discrepant results appeared to be attributable to a nonviable fetus, embryonic loss, or fetal loss.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association