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  • Author or Editor: Charles J. McGrath x
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SUMMARY

We compared the ability of 2 α2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, atipamezole and yohimbine, to reverse medetomidine-induced CNS depression and cardiorespiratory changes in lambs. Twenty lambs (7.8 ± 2.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups (n = 5). Each lamb was given medetomidine (30 μg/kg of body weight, IV), followed in 15 minutes by IV administration of atipamezole (30 or 60 μg/kg), yohimbine (1 mg/kg), or 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution. Medetomidine caused lateral recumbency in 1 to 2 minutes in all treated lambs. Medetomidine significantly (P < 0.05) decreased heart rate at 5 and 10 minutes after its administration. Heart rate remained above 120 beats/min, and severe bradycardia (≤ 70 beats/min) and other arrhythmias did riot occur throughout the study. Medetomidine also induced tachypnea in all treated lambs. The tachypnea was abolished by atipamezole and yohimbine, but not by saline solution administration. The medetomidine-induced tachypnea did not significantly affect arterial pH and Paco2. Arterial oxygen tension was within acceptable range (Pao2 , = 71 to 62 mm of Hg), but was lower than expected. Administration of atipamezole, yohimbine, or saline solution did not change Pao2, significantly. Lambs treated with 30 or 60 μg of atipa- mezole/kg were able to walk unassisted in 2.4 ± 0.4 and 2.3 ± 0.7 minutes, respectively, whereas yohimbine- and saline-treated lambs did not walk unassisted until 15.6 ± 2.7 and 73.0 ± 6.8 minutes later, respectively. Results of this study indicated that medetomidine is a potent CNS depressant in lambs. Atipamezole at dosage of 30 or 60 μg/kg was equally effective, and was more effective in antagonizing medetomidine-induced CNS depression than was yohimbine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cardiorespiratory effects of an iv administered bolus of ketamine (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.375 mg/kg) followed by iv infusion of ketamine (200 μg/kg/min) and midazolam (10 μg/kg/min) for 60 minutes was determined in 6 dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination was administered to dogs on 3 occasions to determine effects of prior administration of iv administered saline solution (1 ml), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), or oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg). The infusion rate of ketamine and midazolam was decreased by 25% for anesthetic maintenance after opioid administration.

There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory variables after saline solution or butorphanol administration; however, oxymorphone caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and breathing rate. Bolus administration of ketamine-midazolam combination after saline solution caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and significant decreases in stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial oxygen content, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Opioid administration was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower values than was saline administration for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial and mixed venous pH and with higher values for stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension. Prior oxymorphone administration resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) values for mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension, and the lowest values for arterial oxygen tension, and arterial and mixed venous pH. Each treatment provided otherwise uncomplicated anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery. Time to extubation, sternal recumbency, and walking with minimal ataxia was similar for each treatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Seven atopic dogs underwent intradermal allergy testing with 46 inhalant antigens before and after administration of a tiletamine/zolazepam solution (4 mg/kg of body weight, IV). This anesthetic protocol had no significant effect on the intradermal response caused by histamine, whole flea extract, or various inhalant allergens. Short-acting chemical restraint induced by the drug combination facilitated the intradermal testing procedure.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cardiopulmonary consequences of iv administered glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg of body weight), followed in 11 ± 2 minutes by butorphanol (0.2 mg/ kg) and xylazine (0.5 mg/kg), were evaluated in 6 dogs, with and without nasal administration of oxygen (100 ml/kg/min). Glycopyrrolate caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and cardiac index and significant (P < 0.05) decreases in stroke index.

Subsequent administration of butorphanol and xylazine was associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in systemic vascular resistance, mean arterial blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PaCO2 , venous admixture, oxygen extraction ratio, and hemoglobin concentration. It caused significant (P < 0.05) decreases in cardiac index, stroke index, breathing rate, minute volume index, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption. Mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, tidal volume index, and minute volume index were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when dogs were breathing room air. The arterial and venous PO2 and PCO2 , and venous oxygen content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, and the arterial and venous pH, and oxygen consumption were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when oxygen was administered. Pulsus alternans and S-T segment depression were observed in dogs of both groups. Ventricular premature contractions were observed in 1 dog breathing room air.

All dogs were intubated briefly 15 minutes after administration of butorphanol and xylazine. Time to first spontaneous movement was 45 minutes. All dogs remained in lateral recumbency without physical restraint for 60 minutes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Two digital oscillometric human blood pressure measuring devices were modified and evaluated as blood pressure monitors in 12 healthy anesthetized dogs. Direct arterial pressures were measured via cannulation of the dorsal pedal artery and were correlated with indirect measurements through an inflatable cuff placed over the dorsal pedal artery below the hock joint of the contralateral limb. Direct and indirect measurements were compared for systolic, diastolic, and calculated mean arterial pressures. Blood pressure ranges between 215/145 mm of Hg and 65/30 mm of Hg were obtained, using combinations of halothane, phenylephrine, calcium, and iv administered fluids. Machine A was found to be insufficient for clinical application, on the basis of correlation coefficients between direct and indirect pressures of 0.78, 0.65, and 0.74 for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. Higher correlation coefficients between direct and indirect pressures (0.77, 0.87, and 0.87, respectively) were obtained with machine B. The results of the study reported here suggest machine B may be an effective blood pressure monitoring device in anesthetized dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research