Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Charles H. Vite x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the electroencephalogram (EEG) in young cats.

Animals—23 clinically normal cats.

Procedures—Cats were sedated with medetomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age, and an EEG was recorded at each time point. Recordings were visually inspected for electrical continuity, interhemispheric synchrony, amplitude and frequency of background electrical activity, and frequency of transient activity. Computer-aided analysis was used to perform frequency spectral analysis and to calculate absolute and relative power of the background activity at each age.

Results—Electrical continuity was evident in cats ≥ 4 weeks old, and interhemispheric synchrony was evident in cats at all ages evaluated. Analysis of amplitude of background activity and absolute power revealed significant elevations in 6-week-old cats, compared with results for 2-, 20-, and 24-week-old cats. No association between age and relative power or frequency was identified. Transient activity, which consisted of sleep spindles and K complexes, was evident at all ages, but spike and spike-and-wave discharges were observed in cats at 2 weeks of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomidine and butorphanol were administered in accordance with a sedation protocol that allowed investigators to repeatedly obtain EEG data from cats. Age was an important consideration when interpreting EEG data. These data on EEG development in clinically normal cats may be used for comparison in future studies conducted to examine EEGs in young cats with diseases that affect the cerebral cortex.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of specific signs of neurologic dysfunction in dogs with central vestibular disease (CVD) or peripheral vestibular disease (PVD) and whether the degree of head tilt, rate of nystagmus, and number of beats of postrotatory nystagmus can be used to help distinguish CVD from PVD.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—40 client-owned dogs with vestibular system dysfunction.

Procedure—A standard neurologic examination was performed, along with an expanded vestibular system examination that assessed the degree of head tilt, rate of nystagmus, and number of beats of postrotatory nystagmus.

Results—Dogs with CVD were significantly more likely to be nonambulatory than were dogs with PVD. Dogs with PVD were significantly more likely to veer or lean in 1 direction and to have resting nystagmus than were dogs with CVD. Median rate of resting nystagmus was significantly higher for dogs with PVD, but no significant differences between groups were detected in regard to presence or degree of head tilt, presence of positional ventral strabismus, and number of beats of postrotatory nystagmus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that nonambulatory tetraparesis is significantly more common in dogs with CVD and veering and leaning are significantly more common in dogs with PVD. Although neither the degree of head tilt nor the number of beats of postrotatory nystagmus could be used to distinguish CVD from PVD, rate of resting nystagmus may be useful in distinguishing the 2 conditions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227: 570–574)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a molecular genetic test to detect the mutant skeletal muscle chloride channel (ClC-1) allele that causes myotonia congenita in Miniature Schnauzers and to analyze the relationship of affected and carrier dogs.

Animals—372 Miniature Schnauzers from the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe that were tested between March 2000 and October 2001.

Procedure—The sequence surrounding the mutation in the ClC-1 allele was amplified by use of a unique pair of primers. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were digested with the restriction enzyme Hpy CH4 III and separated on a 6% polyacrylamide gel. Pedigrees from all available carrier and affected dogs were analyzed, and a composite pedigree was established.

Results—Enzyme digestion of PCR products of the normal ClC-1 allele resulted in 3 fragments of 175, 135, and 30 bp, whereas PCR products of the mutant allele resulted in fragments of only 175 and 165 bp. Of the 372 Miniature Schnauzers, 292 (78.5%) were normal, 76 (20.4%) were carriers, and 4 (1.1%) were affected (myotonic) dogs. Frequency of the mutant allele was 0.113. Pedigree analysis revealed that a popular sire, documented to be a carrier, was a common ancestor of all carriers and affected dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A PCR-based enzyme digestion DNA test was developed. The mutant allele for this disease is frequent in Miniature Schnauzers that are related to a common carrier ancestor. Breeding dogs should be tested by this specific DNA test to help limit the spread of this deleterious mutation. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1443–1447)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of lymphosarcoma and other tumors affecting the spinal cord of cats and to relate specific types of tumors with signalment, history, and clinical findings.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—85 cats with tumors affecting the spinal cord.

Procedures—Medical records of cats with histologically confirmed primary or metastatic tumors of the spinal cord or tumors causing spinal cord disease by local extension from adjacent tissues examined between 1980 and 2005 were reviewed. Data on signalment; clinical history; results of neurologic examination, diagnostic imaging, and clinical pathologic evaluation; and location of tumor within the spinal cord were obtained from medical records and analyzed by use of logistic regression models.

Results—Lymphosarcoma was the most common tumor and affected the spinal cord in 33 (38.8%) cats, followed by osteosarcoma in 14 (16.5%) cats. Cats with lymphosarcoma were typically younger at initial examination, had a shorter duration of clinical signs, and had lesions in more regions of the CNS than did cats with other types of tumors. In 22 of 26 (84.6%) cats with lymphosarcoma, the tumor was also found in extraneural sites.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data for spinal cord tumors in this population of cats were analyzed by logistic regression analysis, which effectively distinguished cats with lymphosarcoma from cats with other types of tumors. Additional clinical information reported here will help to increase the index of suspicion or definitive antemortem diagnosis of spinal cord tumors of cats.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old sexually intact female French Bulldog was evaluated because of lethargy, anorexia, and chronic rhinitis-sinusitis. The dog had nasal discharge of 18 months' duration; dorsal rhinotomies were performed 3 months and 2 weeks prior to referral.

Clinical Findings—On initial evaluation, intraventricular pneumocephalus and sinusitis were diagnosed; CSF analysis revealed high total protein concentration and mononuclear pleocytosis. The dog's condition improved with treatment. Two weeks after discharge, it was treated by a local veterinarian because of upper airway obstruction; 3 days later, the dog was referred because of seizures. Computed tomography revealed a large fluid-filled, left lateral ventricle and a soft tissue mass protruding through a cribriform plate defect. The mass was histologically consistent with brain tissue. Findings of clinicopathologic analyses were unremarkable. Results of cytologic examination of a CSF sample were indicative of septic, suppurative inflammation, and bacteriologic culture of CSF yielded Escherichia coli.

Treatment and Outcome—Amputation of the herniated olfactory bulb and antimicrobial treatment resolved the septic meningoencephalitis, but neurologic deficits recurred 6 weeks later. Definitive correction of the cribriform plate defect with bone and fascial grafts was attempted. Postoperative rotation of the bone graft resulted in cerebral laceration and hemorrhage, and the dog was euthanized.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that following dorsal rhinotomy and nasal polypectomy surgery, the dog developed herniation of the left olfactory bulb, intra-ventricular pneumocephalus, and septic meningo-encephalitis because of a cribriform plate defect. Care must be taken to prevent rotation of bone grafts used in cribriform defect repair.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether neurologic examination findings, results of CSF analysis, or age at the onset of seizures could be used to predict whether results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would be normal or abnormal in dogs with seizures.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—115 dogs.

Procedure—Information on results of neurologic examination, results of CSF analysis, age at the onset of seizures, and results of MRI was obtained from the medical records.

Results—Results of MRI were abnormal in 61 dogs and normal in 54. Sensitivity and specificity of neurologic examination alone were 77 (47/61) and 91% (49/54), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CSF analysis alone were 79 (48/61) and 69% (37/54), respectively. Results of MRI were abnormal for 12 of 28 (43%) dogs with abnormal CSF analysis results and normal neurologic examination results but for only 2 of 35 (6%) dogs with normal CSF analysis and normal neurologic examination results. Similarly, results of MRI were abnormal for 36 of 37 (97%) dogs with abnormal CSF analysis and abnormal neurologic examination results but for only 11 of 15 (73%) dogs with normal CSF analysis results and abnormal neurologic examination results. Age at the onset of seizures (< 6 vs ≥ 6 years old) was not significantly associated with results of MRI.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that neurologic examination findings and results of CSF analysis are useful in predicting whether results of MRI will be abnormal in dogs examined because of seizures, but age at the onset of seizures is not. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:781–784)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association