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  • Author or Editor: Charles E. Wiedmeyer x
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Objective—To determine the effect of glucocorticoids on the induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzymes in the liver, kidneys, and intestinal mucosa, 3 tissues that are principally responsible for ALP synthesis in dogs.

Sample Population—Tissues from the liver, kidneys, and intestinal mucosa of 6 dogs treated with 1 mg of prednisone/kg/d for 32 days and 6 untreated control dogs.

Procedure—Using canine-specific primers for the ALP isoenzymes, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was designed to measure liver ALP (LALP) and intestinal ALP (IALP) mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) expression in tissues from the liver and kidneys and intestinal mucosa of glucocorticoid-treated and control dogs. Tissue ALP isoenzyme activities were compared between the groups.

Results—The LALP activity and mRNA concentrations increased in tissues of the liver and kidneys in dogs treated with prednisone, whereas LALP hnRNA increased only in liver tissues. The IALP activity and mRNA expression increased in intestinal mucosa and liver tissues in prednisone-treated dogs. We did not detect an increase in IALP hnRNA expression in these tissues.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Synthesis of ALP is increased in the liver, kidneys, and intestinal mucosa of dogs in response to prednisone treatment. This response appears to be regulated at the transcriptional level, but mechanisms may differ between LALP and IALP. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1083–1088)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To clone segments of the canine liver alkaline phosphatase (LALP) and corticosteroidinduced alkaline phosphatase (CIALP) genes and use those clones to determine the tissue source of CIALP, the kinetics of LALP and CIALP mRNA expression for glucocorticoid-treated dogs, and the correlation between LALP and CIALP transcript concentrations and isoenzyme activities.

Sample Population—Tissues obtained from 7 dogs treated with prednisone (1 mg/kg, SC, q 24 h) for up to 32 days and 1 untreated (control) dog.

Procedure—Gene segments of LALP and CIALP were obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The tissue source of CIALP and IALP mRNA was determined by northern blot analysis of tissues from 1 of the glucocorticoidtreated dogs. Hepatic tissues and serum samples were obtained from the 6 remaining glucocorticoidtreated dogs on days 0, 2, 5, 10, and 32 of prednisone treatment, and relative expression of LALP and CIALP mRNA was correlated with LALP and CIALP activity.

Results—A 2,246-base pair (bp) segment of canine LALP and a 1,338-bp segment of CIALP were cloned. Northern blot analysis revealed CIALP mRNA expression in hepatic tissues only after glucocorticoid treatment. Kinetics of LALP and CIALP mRNA expression in the liver of glucocorticoid-treated dogs paralleled liver and serum activities of LALP and CIALP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The liver is the most likely source for CIALP in dogs. Analysis of kinetics of serum and hepatic LALP and CIALP mRNA suggests that after glucocorticoid treatment, both are regulated by modification of mRNA transcript concentrations, possibly through differing mechanisms. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1089–1095)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cats and its typical regions of cardiac expression.

Animals—5 healthy adult mixed-breed cats.

Procedure—Total RNA was extracted from samples obtained from the left and right atrium, left and right ventricle, and interventricular septum of each cat. The RNA was used to produce cDNA for sequencing and northern blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from feline blood samples. Polymerase chain reaction primers designed from consensus sequences of other species were used to clone and sequence the feline ANP gene.

Results—The feline ANP gene consists of 1,072 nucleotides. It consists of 3 exons (123, 327, and 12 nucleotides) separated by 2 introns (101 and 509 nucleotides). It has several typical features of eukaryotic genes and a putative steroid-response element located within the second intron. Preprohormone ANP consists of 153 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of the active form of feline ANP (ANP-30) is identical to that of equine, bovine, and ovine ANP-30 and differs from that of human, canine, and porcine ANP-28 only by 2 carboxy-terminal arginine residues. The ANP mRNA was detected only in the left and right atria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The genetic and protein structure and principal regions of cardiac expression of feline ANP are similar to those of other species. Results of this study should be helpful in future studies on the natriuretic response in cats to diseases that affect cardiovascular function. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:236–240)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for use in dogs, cats, and horses.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—7 horses, 3 cats, and 4 dogs that were clinically normal and 1 horse, 2 cats, and 3 dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Interstitial glucose concentrations were monitored and recorded every 5 minutes by use of a CGMS. Interstitial glucose concentrations were compared with whole blood glucose concentrations as determined by a point-of-care glucose meter. Interstitial glucose concentrations were also monitored in 2 clinically normal horses after oral and IV administration of glucose.

Results—There was a positive correlation between interstitial and whole blood glucose concentrations for clinically normal dogs, cats, and horses and those with diabetes mellitus. Events such as feeding, glucose or insulin administration, restraint, and transport to the clinic were recorded by the owner or clinician and could be identified on the graph and associated with time of occurrence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data indicate that use of CGMS is valid for dogs, cats, and horses. This system alleviated the need for multiple blood samples and the stress associated with obtaining those samples. Because hospitalization was not required, information obtained from the CGMS provided a more accurate assessment of the animal's glucose concentrations for an extended period, compared with measurement of blood glucose concentrations. Use of the CGMS will promote the diagnostic and research potential of serial glucose monitoring. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 987–992)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association