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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in dogs experimentally infected with rabies.

Procedure—29 Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were sedated and inoculated in the right masseter muscle with a salivary gland homogenate from a naturally infected rabid dog (day 0). Six hours later, 5 dogs were treated by administration of 2 murine anti-rabies glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and commercial vaccine; 5 received mAb alone; 5 received purified, heat-treated, equine rabies immune globulin (PHT-ERIG) and vaccine; 5 received PHT-ERIG alone; 4 received vaccine alone; and 5 control dogs were not treated. The mAb or PHTERIG was administered at the site of rabies virus inoculation. Additional vaccine doses for groups mAb plus vaccine, PHT-ERIG plus vaccine, and vaccine alone were administered IM in the right hind limb on days 3, 7, 14, and 35.

Results—All control dogs and dogs that received only vaccine developed rabies. In the PHT-ERIG and vaccine group, 2 of 5 dogs were protected, whereas none were protected with PHT-ERIG alone. Use of mAb alone resulted in protection in 4 of 5 dogs. Administration of mAb in combination with vaccine provided protection in all 5 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Current national guidelines recommend euthanasia or a 6- month quarantine for unvaccinated animals exposed to rabies. Findings from this study document that vaccine alone following severe exposure was unable to provide protection from rabies. However, vaccine combined with mAb resulted in protection in all treated dogs, revealing the potential use of mAb in PEP against rabies in naïve dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1096–1100)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Summary—During 2009, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 2.2% decrease from the 6,841 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2008. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,327 (34.8%) raccoons, 1,625 (24.3%) bats, 1,603 (24.0%) skunks, 504 (75%) foxes, 300 (4.5%) cats, 81 (1.2%) dogs, and 74 (1.1%) cattle. Compared with 2008, numbers of rabid raccoons and bats that were reported decreased, whereas numbers of rabid skunks, foxes, cats, cattle, dogs, and horses that were reported increased.

Fewer rabid raccoons, compared with 2008, were reported by 12 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies is enzootic, and number of rabid raccoons decreased by 2.6% overall nationally. Despite a 10% decrease in the number of rabid bats that were reported and a decrease in the total number of bats submitted for testing, bats were the second most commonly submitted animal, behind cats, during 2009. The number of rabid skunks that were reported increased by 0.9% overall. The proportion of rabid skunks in which infection was attributed to the raccoon rabies virus variant decreased from 473% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009, resulting in a 12.7% increase in the number of rabid skunks infected with a skunk rabies virus variant. The number of rabid foxes increased 11.0% overall from the previous year.

Four cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Texas, Indiana, Virginia, and Michigan. The Texas case represented the first presumptive abortive human rabies case, with the patient recovering after the onset of symptoms without intensive care. The Indiana and Michigan cases were associated with bat rabies virus variants. The human rabies case in Virginia was associated with a canine rabies virus variant acquired during the patient's travel to India.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1996, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 7,124 cases of rabies in non-human animals and 4 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 92% (6,550 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (574 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases decreased 9.6% from that of 1995 (7,881 cases). Although much of the decline was the result of fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons, fewer cases were also reported among most groups of animals. Numbers of cases associated with separate epizootics of rabies in foxes in west central Texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern Texas attributable to canine variants have declined, with 56.2% fewer rabid foxes (60), 72.7% fewer rabid dogs (15), and 76.3% fewer rabid coyotes (19) during 1996, compared with cases of rabies reported among these same species during 1995. Nationally, the number of reported rabid bats (741) decreased 5.8%, with cases reported by 46 of the 48 contiguous states. Four Eastern Seaboard states, enzootic for the raccoon variant of the rabies virus, reported noteworthy increases in total numbers of reported cases: Maine (29.7%; 101 cases in 1995 to 131 in 1996), Maryland (44.2%; 441 to 636), North Carolina (59.0%; 466 to 741), and Virginia (33.3%; 459 to 612). Increases were also reported by Florida (6.4%; 251 to 267) and Georgia (3.1 %; 294 to 303). Cats continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid, but reported cases of rabies in cats (266), cattle (131), and dogs (111) decreased by 7.6%, 3.7%, and 24.0%, respectively. Thirty-one states and the District of Columbia reported decreases in rabies in animals during 1996, compared with 18 states and Puerto Rico in 1995. Hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1996. Two indigenously acquired cases of rabies reported in human beings were the result of infection with rabies virus variants associated with bats, whereas the remaining 2 human rabies infections were acquired outside the United States, and the variants identified were consistent with those associated with rabid dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To identify common elements of large-scale human exposures to rabid or presumed rabid animals in the United States from 1990 to 1996.

Design

Retrospective study.

Procedure

Health departments in 50 states and the District of Columbia were contacted regarding episodes of large-scale human exposures to rabid animals occurring between 1990 and 1996. A large-scale exposure was defined as administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) to 25 or more people after an exposure to a rabid or presumed rabid animal or littermates. Incident-specific information was obtained through questionnaires sent to states reporting episodes. Data are reported as medians.

Results

Fifteen of 51 (29.4%) health departments reported 22 episodes; 72.7% involved companion animals or livestock. Twenty-six animals were involved in these 22 episodes, including 10 (38.5%) dogs, 4 (15.4%) livestock, 4 (15.4%) raccoons, 3 (11.5%) cats, 3 (11.5%) bats, and 2 (7.7%) ferrets. Schools (36.4%) and public places (22.7%) were the most common settings for exposures. Reportedly, 1,908 people received PEP. The cost for 10 episodes was $61,547/episode (range, $14,199 to $1,500,000). An episode-specific written algorithm for recommending PEP had been developed for use in only 4 (18.2%) episodes.

Clinical Implications

Large-scale exposures most commonly involved a single companion animal. Exposures attributable to improper handling of wildlife and unrestricted access of animals in schools and public areas can be potentially remedied by targeted education. Use of an episode-specific algorithm to determine need for PEP may also reduce the number of unnecessary treatments. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1198–1200)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1997, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 8,509 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 93% (7,899) were wild animals, whereas 7% (610) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases increased 19.4% from that of 1996 (7,128 cases). Increases were apparent in each of the major species groups, with the exception of cattle. The relative contributions of these groups to the total reported for 1997 were as follows: raccoons (50.5%; 4,300 cases), skunks (24.0%; 2,040), bats (11.3%; 958), foxes (5.3%; 448), cats (3.5%; 300), dogs (1.5%; 126), and cattle (1.4%; 122). The 958 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 29.3% increase over the total reported for 1996 and the greatest number reported since 1984, with cases reported by 46 of the 48 contiguous states. The epizootic of rabies in raccoons expanded into Ohio in 1997 and now includes 19 states and the District of Columbia. Thirteen states, where rabies in raccoons is enzootic, reported increases over 1996 in total numbers of reported cases. Among these, New York (1,264 cases), North Carolina (879), Virginia (690), and Maryland (619) reported the greatest numbers of cases. Five states reported increases that exceeded 50%, compared with cases reported in 1996: Ohio (673.3%; 15 cases in 1996 to 116 in 1997), Massachusetts (144.3%; 115 to 281), South Carolina (97.9%; 96 to 190), Connecticut (97.4%; 274 to 541), and Maine (86.3%; 131 to 244). Cases of rabies associated with foci of rabies in foxes in west central Texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern Texas continued to decline, with this state reporting 78.3% fewer rabid foxes (13 cases), 26.7% fewer rabid dogs (11), and 63.2% fewer rabid coyotes (7) during 1997, compared with 1996. Reported cases of rabies in cats (300) and dogs (126) increased 12.8% and 13.5%, respectively, whereas cases in cattle (122) decreased by 6.9%. Thirty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported increases in rabies in animals during 1997, compared with decreases reported by 31 states and the District of Columbia in 1996. One state (Mississippi; 5 cases) remained unchanged. Hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1997. Four indigenously acquired cases of rabies reported in human beings were the result of infection with rabies virus variants associated with bats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

During 1998, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 7,961 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a decrease of 6.5% from 8,509 cases in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings reported in 1997. More than 92% (7,358 cases) were in wild animals, whereas > 7.5% (603 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93% in wild animals and 7% in domestic species in 1997). Decreases were evident in all of the major contributing species groups, with the exception of skunks and bats. The relative contributions of the major groups to the total reported for 1998 were raccoons (44.0%; 3,502 cases), skunks (28.5%; 2,272), bats (12.5%; 992), foxes (5.5%; 435), cats (3.5%; 282), cattle (1.5%; 116), and dogs (11.5%; 113). No further discernable westward extension of the epizootic of rabies in raccoons in Ohio was reported. Twelve of the 19 states enzootic for the raccoon variant of the rabies virus and the District of Columbia reported decreased numbers of cases of rabies during 1998, compared with 13 states and the District of Columbia that reported increases during 1997. Three states, Rhode Island (143.2%), Massachusetts (77.2%), and New Hampshire (69.4%), reported increases of > 50% during 1998, compared with totals reported for 1997. In Texas, the number of cases of rabies associated with enzootic canine variants of the rabies virus remained greatly diminished; however, overall totals of reported cases of rabies increased in Texas and 12 other states where skunks are the major terrestrial reservoir of rabies. At the national level, the total of 82 reported cases of rabies among horses and mules was greater than that reported for any year since 1981 (88 cases) and represented a 74.5% increase, compared with the total for 1997. The 992 cases of rabies reported in bats during 1998 were the greatest proportionate contribution by bats since 1990. Reported cases of rabies in cats (282), dogs (113), and cattle (116) decreased 6.0%, 10.3%, and 4.9%, respectively. One indigenously acquired case of rabies reported in a human being during 1998 was the result of infection with a rabies virus variant associated with silver-haired and eastern pipistrelle bats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association