Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 19 items for

  • Author or Editor: Charles E. Rupprecht x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2008, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,841 cases of rabies in animals and 2 cases in humans to the CDC, representing a 3.1% decrease from the 7,060 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2007. Approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,389 (34.9%) raccoons, 1,806 (26.4%) bats, 1,589 (23.2%) skunks, 454 (6.6%) foxes, 294 (4.3%) cats, 75 (1.1%) dogs, and 59 (0.9%) cattle. Compared with numbers of cases reported in 2007, numbers of cases reported in 2008 increased among cats, cattle, and skunks and decreased among dogs, raccoons, bats, and foxes. Numbers of rabid raccoons reported during 2008 decreased in 11 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies was enzootic; overall number of rabid raccoons reported decreased by 8.6% during 2008, compared with 2007.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases involving skunks increased by 7.7% during 2008, compared with the number reported in 2007; this was the first increase in the number of reported rabid skunks since 2006. The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes decreased 1.7% in 2008, compared with 2007. The 1,806 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 6.7% decrease, compared with the number reported in 2007. One case of rabies in a dog imported from Iraq was reported at a quarantine station in New Jersey during 2008. Follow-up of potentially exposed animals in the same shipment did not reveal any secondary transmission. The United States remained free from dog-to-dog transmission of canine rabies virus variants. Total number of rabid dogs reported decreased 19.4% in 2008, compared with 2007.

Two human rabies cases were reported from California and Missouri during 2008. The California case involved a recent immigrant from Mexico and was attributed to a newly identified rabies virus variant most likely associated with Mexican free-tailed bats. The case in Missouri was attributed to a rabies virus variant associated with eastern pipistrelle and silver-haired bats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2009, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 2.2% decrease from the 6,841 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2008. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,327 (34.8%) raccoons, 1,625 (24.3%) bats, 1,603 (24.0%) skunks, 504 (75%) foxes, 300 (4.5%) cats, 81 (1.2%) dogs, and 74 (1.1%) cattle. Compared with 2008, numbers of rabid raccoons and bats that were reported decreased, whereas numbers of rabid skunks, foxes, cats, cattle, dogs, and horses that were reported increased.

Fewer rabid raccoons, compared with 2008, were reported by 12 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies is enzootic, and number of rabid raccoons decreased by 2.6% overall nationally. Despite a 10% decrease in the number of rabid bats that were reported and a decrease in the total number of bats submitted for testing, bats were the second most commonly submitted animal, behind cats, during 2009. The number of rabid skunks that were reported increased by 0.9% overall. The proportion of rabid skunks in which infection was attributed to the raccoon rabies virus variant decreased from 473% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009, resulting in a 12.7% increase in the number of rabid skunks infected with a skunk rabies virus variant. The number of rabid foxes increased 11.0% overall from the previous year.

Four cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Texas, Indiana, Virginia, and Michigan. The Texas case represented the first presumptive abortive human rabies case, with the patient recovering after the onset of symptoms without intensive care. The Indiana and Michigan cases were associated with bat rabies virus variants. The human rabies case in Virginia was associated with a canine rabies virus variant acquired during the patient's travel to India.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2006, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the CDC, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1.1%). Compared with numbers of reported cases in 2005, cases in 2006 increased among all groups except cattle. Increases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2006 were reported by 11 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies was enzootic, and reported cases increased by 3.2% overall, compared with 2005.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2006 increased by 6.1% from the number reported in 2005. Once again, Texas reported the greatest number (n = 351) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of animal rabies cases (889). No cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant were reported. The last identified case of this canine rabies virus variant was identified in March 2004, along the US/Mexi-co border. With 2006 marking the second year of no apparent transmission of the dog/coyote variant, these findings from surveillance data support the contention that the canine rabies virus variant is no longer in circulation in the United States. Total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes increased 13.6%, compared with 2005. Increases in the number of reported rabid foxes were attributable to greater numbers of foxes reported with the Arctic fox rabies virus variant in Alaska, the Texas gray fox rabies virus variant in Texas, and the raccoon rabies virus variant in Virginia. The 1,692 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 14.5% increase, compared with numbers reported in 2005, making bats the second most reported rabid animal behind raccoons. Cases of rabies in cats, dogs, horses and mules, and sheep and goats increased 18.2%, 3.9%, 12.8%, and 22.2%, respectively, whereas cases reported in cattle decreased 11.8%. In Puerto Rico, reported cases of rabies in mongooses increased 9.2%, and rabies in domestic animals, presumably attributable to spillover infection from mongooses, increased 20%.

Three cases of human rabies were reported from Texas, Indiana, and California during 2006. The cases in Indiana and Texas were attributed to bat rabies virus variants, whereas the case in California was attributed to an exposure to a dog in the Philippines.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2011, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,981 raccoons (32.8%), 1,627 skunks (27.0%), 1,380 bats (22.9%), 427 foxes (7.1%), 303 cats (5.0%), 65 cattle (1.1%), and 70 dogs (1.2%). Compared with 2010, there was a substantial increase in the number of rabid skunks reported. Six cases of rabies involving humans were reported from California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and South Carolina. Three cases reported from Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York were determined to be a result of canine rabies virus variants acquired outside the United States.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in dogs experimentally infected with rabies.

Procedure—29 Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were sedated and inoculated in the right masseter muscle with a salivary gland homogenate from a naturally infected rabid dog (day 0). Six hours later, 5 dogs were treated by administration of 2 murine anti-rabies glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and commercial vaccine; 5 received mAb alone; 5 received purified, heat-treated, equine rabies immune globulin (PHT-ERIG) and vaccine; 5 received PHT-ERIG alone; 4 received vaccine alone; and 5 control dogs were not treated. The mAb or PHTERIG was administered at the site of rabies virus inoculation. Additional vaccine doses for groups mAb plus vaccine, PHT-ERIG plus vaccine, and vaccine alone were administered IM in the right hind limb on days 3, 7, 14, and 35.

Results—All control dogs and dogs that received only vaccine developed rabies. In the PHT-ERIG and vaccine group, 2 of 5 dogs were protected, whereas none were protected with PHT-ERIG alone. Use of mAb alone resulted in protection in 4 of 5 dogs. Administration of mAb in combination with vaccine provided protection in all 5 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Current national guidelines recommend euthanasia or a 6- month quarantine for unvaccinated animals exposed to rabies. Findings from this study document that vaccine alone following severe exposure was unable to provide protection from rabies. However, vaccine combined with mAb resulted in protection in all treated dogs, revealing the potential use of mAb in PEP against rabies in naïve dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1096–1100)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Summary—During 2010, 48 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. Hawaii and Mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 303 cats (4.9%), 71 cattle (1.1 %), and 69 dogs (1.1 %). Compared with 2009, number of reported rabid animals decreased across all animal types with the exception of a 1 % increase in the number of reported rabid cats.

Two cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Louisiana and Wisconsin in 2010. Louisiana reported an imported human rabies case involving a 19-year-old male migrant farm worker who had a history of a vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) bite received while in Mexico. This represents the first human rabies case reported in the United States confirmed to have been caused by a vampire bat rabies virus variant. Wisconsin reported a human rabies case involving a 70-year-old male that was confirmed to have been caused by a rabies virus variant associated with tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus).

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate epidemiologic features of rabies virus variants in dogs and cats in the United States during 1999 and assess the role of bat-associated variants.

Design—Epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population—Rabies viruses from 78 dogs and 230 cats.

Procedure—Brain specimens from rabid dogs and cats were submitted for typing of rabies virus. Historical information, including ownership and vaccination status, was obtained for each animal. Specimens were typed by use of indirect fluorescent antibody assay or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis.

Results—Nearly all animals were infected with the predicted terrestrial rabies virus variant associated with the geographic location of the submission. A batassociated variant of rabies virus was found in a single cat from Maryland. More than half (53%) of submitted animals were classified as owned animals, and most had no known history of vaccination. One vaccination failure was reported in a dog that did not receive a booster dose of rabies vaccine after exposure to a possibly rabid animal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bat-associated rabies virus variants were not a common cause of rabies in dogs and cats during 1999. Vaccine failures were uncommon during the study period. Because most rabid dogs and cats were unvaccinated and were owned animals rather than strays, educational campaigns targeting owners may be useful. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1939–1942)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association