Objective—To determine the prevalence of
Salmonella spp in wild birds commonly found on
Animals—7 selected species of birds were captured
on 9 dairies in Kings and Tulare counties, California.
Procedure—Birds were captured (using traps and
nets) and euthanatized, and the entire gastrointestinal
tract was removed. Contents of the gastrointestinal
tract were subjected to culture for Salmonella spp.
Results—892 birds were captured, and Salmonella
spp were isolated from 22 birds. The prevalence by
dairy ranged from 0.7 to 16.7%, whereas the prevalence
by bird species ranged from 1.2 to 3.2%.
Cowbirds and English sparrows had the highest
prevalence of Salmonella organisms. Five serotypes
of Salmonella organisms were isolated, including
Meleagridis, Montevideo, Muenster, Typhimurium,
and an untyped serotype.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis
of our findings, birds that commonly inhabit California
dairies harbor Salmonella organisms. However,
because of the low prevalence of Salmonella organisms
in birds and the Salmonella serotypes isolated,
birds are not important reservoirs of Salmonella
organisms on California dairies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate fecal shedding of Giardia duodenalis,
Cryptosporidium parvum, Salmonella organisms,
and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from llamas in
California with respect to host factors and management
Animals—354 llamas from 33 facilities.
Procedure—Fecal specimens were collected and
examined for G duodenalis and C parvum by means
of immunofluorescent microscopy. Salmonella organisms
were cultured by placing feces into selenite
enrichment broth followed by selective media.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 was cultured by use of modified
tryptocase soy broth followed by sorbitol
MacConkey agar, with suspect colonies confirmed by
means of immunofluorescent microscopy.
Results—12 of 354 fecal specimens (3.4%) had G
duodenalis cysts. Younger llamas (crias) were more
likely to be shedding cysts, compared with older llamas.
Farm-level factors that increased the risk of
shedding were large numbers of yearlings on the
property (> 10), smaller pen sizes, large numbers of
crias born during the previous year (> 10), and large
pen or pasture populations (> 20). None of the 354
fecal specimens had C parvum oocysts. Seventy-six
(from 7 facilities) and 192 (from 22 facilities) llamas
were tested for Salmonella organisms and E coli
O157:H7, respectively. All fecal specimens had negative
results for these bacteria.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of
G duodenalis was primarily limited to crias 1 to 4
months old. Llamas from properties with large numbers
of crias born in the previous year, resulting in
large numbers of yearlings in the current year, were at
greater risk of infection. In addition, housing llamas in
smaller pens or pastures and managing llamas and
crias in large groups also increased the risk of G duodenalis shedding.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:637–642)