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  • Author or Editor: Chantale L. Pinard x
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OBJECTIVE To characterize the distribution and intensity of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the eyes of cats with and without uveitis and to determine whether COX-2 expression is correlated with severity of inflammation.

SAMPLES Archived ocular tissue specimens from 51 cats with and 10 cats without ocular disease.

PROCEDURES Specimens from only 1 eye were evaluated for each cat. Specimens were stained with H&E stain or immunohistochemical stain for detection of COX-2 and reviewed. For each eye, the type, severity, and distribution of inflammation and the distribution and intensity of COX-2 expression were determined for the uvea and other ocular tissues. Correlation between COX-2 expression and inflammation severity was also assessed.

RESULTS COX-2 was not expressed in any nondiseased eye. Of the 51 diseased eyes, 20 had histologic evidence of lymphocytic-plasmacytic uveitis, 13 had neutrophilic uveitis, 11 had diffuse iris melanoma with uveitis, and 7 had diffuse iris melanoma without uveitis. Of the 44 eyes with uveitis, COX-2 was detected in the uvea of 16, including 11 eyes with lymphocytic-plasmacytic uveitis, 4 with neutrophilic uveitis, and 1 with diffuse iris melanoma–induced uveitis. Inflammation was severe, moderate, or mild in 10, 5, and 1 of those eyes, respectively. Cyclooxygenase-2 was detected in the cornea of 21 eyes with uveitis and 1 eye with diffuse iris melanoma without uveitis. Uveitis severity was positively correlated with COX-2 expression in both the uvea and cornea.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that COX-2 is an inflammatory mediator in feline uveitis but not diffuse iris melanoma.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the effects of gabapentin, tramadol, and meloxicam on tear production, intraocular pressure (IOP), pupillary diameter, tear break-up time, and corneal touch threshold in healthy dogs when given orally for 3 days.


9 healthy research Beagles.


A randomized, blinded, case-crossover study with a 6-sequence, 3-treatment, and 3-period design was performed. A 7-day acclimation period was followed by 3 treatment phases, each with a 3-day treatment period followed by a 7-day washout period for 3 different drugs. Block randomization was used to group dogs for treatments with drug A (gabapentin), B (tramadol), or C (meloxicam). Measurements of tear production, IOP, pupillary diameter, tear break-up time, and corneal touch threshold were performed on a schedule. A generalized mixed-effects linear regression model was created for each ocular variable, accounting for repeated measures within individuals.


Intraocular pressure was the only variable to have differed substantially between the first 5 and last 2 days of the acclimation period. When treatment phase, day, time of day, dog identification, baseline value, and eye were accounted for, the mean IOP was lower for dogs during treatment phases with gabapentin or tramadol, compared with meloxicam, but this difference was not considered clinically meaningful.


Results indicated that a minimum 5-day acclimation period is necessary for IOP measurements to return to baseline in dogs. The statistically identified effect of gabapentin and tramadol on IOP in dogs of the present study warrants further investigation. It is possible that at higher dosages, or in dogs with glaucoma, this effect may become clinically significant.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate lactoferrin and lysozyme content in various ocular glands of bison and cattle and in tears of bison.

Sample Population—Tissues of ocular glands obtained from 15 bison and 15 cattle and tears collected from 38 bison.

Procedure—Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect lysozyme and lactoferrin in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the ocular glands. Protein gel electrophoresis was used to analyze ocular glands and pooled bison tears by use of a tris-glycine gel and SDS-PAGE. Western blotting was used to detect lactoferrin and lysozyme.

Results—Immunohistochemical staining for lactoferrin was evident in the lacrimal gland and gland of the third eyelid in cattle and bison and the deep gland of the third eyelid (Harder's gland) in cattle. Equivocal staining for lactoferrin was seen for the Harder's gland in bison. An 80-kd band (lactoferrin) was detected via electrophoresis and western blots in the lacrimal gland and gland of the third eyelid in cattle and bison, Harder's glands of cattle, and bison tears. An inconsistent band was seen in Harder's glands of bison. Lysozyme was not detected in the lacrimal gland of cattle or bison with the use of immunohistochemical analysis or western blots. Western blots of bison tears did not reveal lysozyme.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Distribution of lactoferrin and a lack of lysozyme are similar in the lacrimal gland of cattle and bison. Differences in other tear components may be responsible for variability in the susceptibility to infectious corneal diseases that exists between bison and cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:104–108)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma concentrations and determine adverse ocular, renal, or hepatic effects associated with repeated topical ophthalmic application of 0.1% diclofenac to healthy cats.

ANIMALS 8 healthy sexually intact male cats.

PROCEDURES A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted. A topical formulation of 0.1% diclofenac was administered 4 times/d for 7 days to 4 cats, and artificial tear (control) solution was administered to the other 4 cats. After a 12-day washout period, cats received the other treatment. Ophthalmic examinations were performed daily. Plasma samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for pharmacokinetic analysis. A CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, determination of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and determination of glomerular filtration rate were performed before the start of the study and after each 7-day treatment period.

RESULTS Mild conjunctival hyperemia was the only adverse ocular effect detected. Maximal drug concentration and area under the curve were significantly higher on day 7 than on day 1. Diclofenac-treated cats had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate than did control-treated cats after the second but not after the first treatment period, presumably associated with iatrogenic hypovolemia.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ophthalmic administration of 0.1% diclofenac was well tolerated in healthy cats, with only mild signs of ocular irritation. Detectable systemic concentrations of diclofenac were achieved with accumulation over 7 days. Systemic absorption of diclofenac may be associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate, particularly in volume-contracted animals. Topical ophthalmic 0.1% diclofenac should be used with caution in volume-contracted or systemically ill cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research