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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe clinical and clinicopathologic findings from dogs with histologic pulmonary lesions consistent with human adult respiratory distress syndrome and to identify potential risk factors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress.

Procedure

Medical records of dogs were reviewed. Signalment, physical examination and clinicopathologic findings at admission, and thoracic radiographic and necropsy findings were recorded.

Results

The most common clinical sign was dyspnea. Respiratory rate ranged from 36 to 140 breaths/min, and abnormal breathing patterns were detected. Crackles were auscultated in 7 dogs. Severe diffuse interstitial and alveolar infiltrates were observed on thoracic radiography in 9 dogs shortly after arrival and developed later in 4 dogs. Four dogs were leukopenic and neutropenic. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was diagnosed in 2 dogs, and hypoalbuminemia was found in 8 dogs. Respiratory status deteriorated rapidly in all dogs, and 10 dogs were mechanically ventilated. Death was attributed solely to respiratory failure in 8 dogs. In the other 11 dogs, severe lesions in nonpulmonary organs, sepsis, or both may have contributed to death. The most common associated conditions that may have contributed to acute respiratory failure were microbial pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration pneumonia, and shock, with more than 1 factor found in 11 of 19 dogs.

Clinical Implications

The index of suspicion for acute respiratory distress syndrome should be high in dogs with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory distress that rapidly progresses to failure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1419-1427)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To characterize respiratory function and treatment in dogs with findings compatible with those of human adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to evaluate the application in dogs of clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS.

Design

Retrospective review of medical records.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Results

Arterial blood pH was 7.30 ± 0.059 (mean ± SD). Nine dogs had metabolic acidosis. In nonmechanically ventilated dogs, Paco2 was 15.0 to 54.9 mm of Hg. Respiratory acidosis developed in 2 mechanically ventilated dogs. Hypoxemia was observed in 4 of 5 dogs breathing room air. In 4 mechanically ventilated dogs, oxygenation was inadequate, despite use of > 60% inspired O2 and positive end-expiratory pressure in 3 dogs. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen tension gradients were widened in 4 dogs breathing room air and in 6 dogs ventilated with 100% O2.

Ten dogs were mechanically ventilated; ventilatory rate was 18 to 60 breaths/min. Tidal volume was 12 ± 3.8 ml/kg of body weight in 4 dogs, minute ventilation > 400 ml/kg/min in 2 dogs, and peak airway pressures > 25 cm of H2O in 6 dogs. Positive end-expiratory pressure was used in 8 dogs. Pneumothorax was detected in 5 ventilated dogs.

Human clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS were fulfilled in 7 dogs. Fluid treatment consisted of IV crystalloids and synthetic colloids. Drugs most often administered were antibiotics and loop diuretics.

Clinical Implications

Human clinical criteria for identification of ARDS may be helpful in diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1428-1433)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association