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Abstract

Objective—To develop laparoscopic-assisted techniques for enterostomy feeding tube placement and full-thickness biopsy of the jejunum in dogs.

Animals—15 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive pressure ventilation was provided. A trocar cannula for the laparoscope was inserted on the ventral midline caudal to the umbilicus. For enterostomy tube placement, a second trocar cannula was placed lateral to the right rectus abdominis muscle, and a Babcock forceps was used to grasp the duodenum and elevate it to the incision made for the cannula. The duodenum was sutured to the abdominal wall, and a feeding tube was inserted. For jejunal biopsy, a third trocar cannula was placed lateral to the left rectus abdominis muscle. A portion of jejunum was elevated to the incision for the second or third cannula, and a full-thickness biopsy specimen was obtained. A second specimen was obtained from another portion of jejunum, and retention sutures for the 2 biopsy sites were tied so that serosal surfaces of the biopsy sites were apposed to each other. Dogs were euthanatized 30 days after surgery.

Results—The enterostomy tube was properly positioned and functional in all 8 dogs that underwent laparoscopic-assisted enterostomy tube placement, and sufficient samples for histologic examination were obtained from all 7 dogs that underwent laparoscopic-assisted jejunal biopsy. None of the dogs had any identifiable problems after surgery.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in dogs, laparoscopic-assisted procedures for enterostomy tube placement and jejunal biopsy are an acceptable alternative to procedures performed during a laparotomy. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:1313–1319)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine long-term outcome associated with laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in susceptible dogs and to evaluate use of laparoscopy to correct GDV.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—25 client-owned large-breed dogs.

Procedure—23 dogs susceptible to GDV were referred as candidates for elective gastropexy. These dogs had a history of treatment for gastric dilatation, clinical signs of gastric dilatation, or family members with gastric dilatation. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy was performed. One year after surgery, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the attachment of the stomach to the abdominal wall. Two dogs with GDV were also treated with laparoscopic-assisted derotation of the stomach and gastropexy.

Results—None of the dogs developed GDV during the year after gastropexy, and all 20 dogs examined ultrasonographically had an intact attachment. Another dog was euthanatized at 11.5 months for unrelated problems. Two dogs with GDV successfully underwent laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy after the stomach was repositioned.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopicassisted gastropexy resulted in a persisting attachment between the stomach and abdominal wall, an absence of GDV development, and few complications. Dogs with a high probability for development of GDV should be considered candidates for minimally invasive gastropexy. Carefully selected dogs with GDV can be treated laparoscopically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1576–1581)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a technique for laparoscopic gastropexy in dogs and evaluate effects on stomach position and strength of the adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall.

Animals—8 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and the abdomen was insufflated with carbon dioxide. A laparoscope was placed through a cannula inserted on the abdominal midline caudal to the umbilicus. Babcock forceps placed through a cannula inserted lateral to the right margin of the rectus abdominus muscle were used to exteriorize the pyloric antrum, a longitudinal incision was made through the serosa and muscular layer of the pyloric antrum, and the seromuscular layer of the pyloric antrum was sutured to the transversus abdominus muscle. After surgery, positive-contrast gastrography was used to evaluate stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying, and ultrasonography was used to assess stomach wall activity and mobility. Dogs were euthanatized 1 month after surgery, and tensile strength of the adhesion was tested.

Results—In all dogs, stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying were normal 25 days after surgery, and the pyloric antrum was firmly attached to the abdominal wall 30 days after surgery. Mean ± SD ultimate load of the adhesion in tension was 106.5 ± 45.6 N.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic gastropexy technique described in the present study could be performed quickly and easily by an experienced surgeon, resulted in a strong fibrous adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall, and appeared to cause minimal stress to the dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871–875)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a laparoscopic-assisted technique for cystopexy in dogs.

Animals—8 healthy male dogs, 7 healthy female dogs, and 3 client-owned dogs with retroflexion of the urinary bladder secondary to perineal herniation.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive pressure ventilation was provided. In the healthy male dogs, the serosal surface of the bladder was sutured to the abdominal wall. In the healthy female dogs, the serosa and muscular layer of the bladder were incised and sutured to the aponeurosis of the external and internal abdominal oblique muscles. Dogs were monitored daily for 30 days after surgery.

Results—All dogs recovered rapidly after surgery and voided normally. In the female dogs, results of urodynamic (leak point pressure and urethral pressure profilometry) and contrast radiographic studies performed 30 days after surgery were similar to results obtained before surgery. Cystopexy was successful in all 3 client-owned dogs, but 1 of these dogs was subsequently euthanatized because of leakage from a colopexy performed at the same time as the cystopexy.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic-assisted cystopexy technique was quick, easy to perform, and not associated with urinary tract infection or abnormalities of urination. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1226–1231).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare diagnostic quality of percutaneous kidney biopsy specimens obtained with laparoscopy versus ultrasound guidance in dogs and compare diagnostic quality of specimens obtained with 14- versus 18-gauge biopsy needles.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy dogs.

Procedure—In each dog, 2 biopsy specimens were obtained from each kidney, 1 with a 14-gauge biopsy needle and 1 with an 18-gauge biopsy needle. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 1 kidney by means of ultrasound guidance and from the contralateral kidney by means of direct viewing during laparoscopy. Number of glomeruli, quality of the biopsy specimen, proportion of specimens that contained muscle tissue, and proportion of specimens with fragmentation or crushing were determined.

Results—Mean ± SD number of glomeruli (32.6 ± 11.0) in laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens was significantly higher than mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 14-gauge specimens; mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 18-gauge specimens; and mean number of glomeruli in laparoscopic, 18-gauge specimens. All 10 laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens were classified as excellent. The proportion of 18-gauge biopsy specimens with crushing or fragmentation was significantly higher than the proportion of 14-gauge specimens. One of the kidneys biopsied with ultrasound guidance had a large amount of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was modest and transient following laparoscopic biopsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that excellent-quality renal biopsy specimens with large numbers of glomeruli can be obtained with 14-gauge, double-spring-activated biopsy needles during laparoscopy. Renal biopsy specimens obtained with 18-gauge biopsy needles frequently had few glomeruli and often were crushed or fragmented, increasing the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:317–321)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association