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Abstract

Objective—To determine hospital proportional morbidity rates (HPMR) for urethral obstructions, urethral plugs or urethroliths, and urethrostomies in cats in veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) in Canada and the United States between 1980 and 1999.

Design—Epidemiologic study.

Animals—305,672 cats evaluated at VTH.

Procedures—Yearly HPMR were determined for cats with urethral obstructions, urethral plugs or urethroliths, or urethrostomies from data compiled by the Purdue Veterinary Medical Database. The test for a linear trend in proportions was used.

Results—Urethral obstructions were reported in 4,683 cats. Yearly HPMR for urethral obstructions declined from 19 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 7 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999. Urethral plugs or urethroliths affected 1,460 cats. Yearly HPMR for urethral plugs or urethroliths decreased from 10 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 2 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999. A total of 2,359 urethrostomies were performed. Yearly HPMR for urethrostomies decreased from 13 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 4 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Frequency of feline urethrostomies performed at VTH in Canada and the United States declined during the past 20 years and paralleled a similar decline in frequency of urethral obstructions and urethral plugs or urethroliths. These trends coincide with widespread use of diets to minimize struvite crystalluria in cats, which is important because struvite has consistently been the predominant mineral in feline urethral plugs during this period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:502–505)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that urate uroliths are uncommonly detected in female Dalmatians, compared with males.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Medical records of dogs evaluated at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America from 1981 to 2002 and compiled by the Veterinary Medical Database, and records of dogs with uroliths submitted for quantitative analyses to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 1981 to 2002.

Procedures—Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess whether sex (male vs female) was a risk factor for urate urolithiasis.

Results—In Dalmatians evaluated by veterinary teaching hospitals in North America, males were more likely (OR, 13.0) to form uroliths, compared with females. In Dalmatians that formed uroliths analyzed by the Minnesota Urolith Center, males were more likely (OR, 14.0) to form urate uroliths, compared with females. In all dogs (Dalmatian and non-Dalmatian) that formed uroliths analyzed by the Minnesota Urolith Center, males were also more likely (OR, 48.0) to form urate uroliths, compared with females.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When conducting studies and formulating generalities about urate urolithiasis in Dalmatians, it is important to consider sex-related differences in urolith occurrence. Long-term dietary or drug protocols designed to minimize formation of urate uroliths in male Dalmatians may not be warranted in female Dalmatians. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:565–569)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify demographic factors associated with urate urolithiasis in cats and determine whether the rate of urolith submission to a laboratory had changed over time.

Design—Case series and case-control study.

Animals—Cases consisted of 5,072 cats with urate uroliths submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center between January 1, 1981, and December 31, 2008. Controls consisted of 437,228 cats without urinary tract diseases identified in records of the Veterinary Medical Database during the same period.

Procedures—Information on cat breed, age, sex, reproductive status, and location of uroliths was used to identify risk factors. Changes in annual urolith submission rates were evaluated.

Results—Purebred cats had significantly higher odds of developing urate uroliths than did cats of mixed breeding (reference group). On the other hand, cats of the Abyssinian, American Shorthair, Himalayan, Manx, and Persian breeds had significantly lower odds of developing urate uroliths than did mixed breeds. Neutered cats were 12 times as likely to develop urate uroliths as were sexually intact cats. Cats in all age groups had significantly increased odds of developing urate uroliths, compared with cats < 1 year of age (reference group). Cats ≥ 4 but < 7 years of age had the highest odds of all groups and were 51 times as likely to develop urate uroliths as were cats < 1 year of age. Urolith submission rates did not change significantly with time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings of this study suggested that the typical cat with urate uroliths was a purebred neutered cat, 4 to 7 years old, with uroliths in the bladder or urethra. This information may be helpful in predicting mineral composition of uroliths in vivo. However, no conclusions can be made regarding cause-and-effect relationships.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine proportional morbidity rates (PMR) and risk factors for lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD) in cats.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Records of 22,908 cats with LUTD and 263,168 cats without LUTD.

Procedure—Data were retrieved from the Purdue Veterinary Medical Data Base. Descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess whether breed, age, sex, and neutering status were associated with different causes of LUTD.

Results—Mean PMR for LUTD irrespective of cause was 8/100 cats (range, 2 to 13/100 cats). Increased risk for urocystolithiasis (Russian Blue, Himalayan, and Persian cats), bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI; Abyssinian cats), congenital urinary tract defects (Manx and Persian cats), and urinary incontinence (Manx cats) was detected. Cats between 2 and < 7 years of age had increased risk for urethral plugs, neurogenic disorders, congenital defects, and iatrogenic injuries. Cats between 4 and < 10 years of age had increased risk for urocystolithiasis, urethral obstructions, and idiopathic LUTD. Cats ≥ 10 years of age had increased risk for UTI and neoplasia. Castrated males had increased risk for each cause of LUTD except UTI and incontinence. Spayed females had increased risk for urocystolithiasis, UTI, and neoplasia. Sexually intact females had decreased risk for each cause of LUTD except neurogenic disorders and iatrogenic injuries.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Specific breed, age, sex, and neutering status may be associated with specific types of feline LUTD. Knowledge of patient risk factors for LUTD may facilitate development of surveillance strategies that enhance earlier detection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1429–1435)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether breed, age, sex, or reproductive status (ie, neutered versus sexually intact) was associated with the apparent increase in prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths and the decrease in prevalence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) uroliths in cats over time.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—Case cats consisted of cats with CaOx (n = 7,895) or MAP (7,334) uroliths evaluated at the Minnesota Urolith Center between 1981 and 1997. Control cats consisted of cats without urinary tract disease admitted to veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States and Canada during the same period (150,482).

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—British Shorthair, Exotic Shorthair, Foreign Shorthair, Havana Brown, Himalayan, Persian, Ragdoll, and Scottish Fold cats had an increased risk of developing CaOx uroliths, as did male cats and neutered cats. Chartreux, domestic shorthair, Foreign Shorthair, Himalayan, Oriental Shorthair, and Ragdoll cats had an increased risk of developing MAP uroliths, as did female cats and neutered cats. Cats with CaOx uroliths were significantly older than cats with MAP uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that changes in breed, age, sex, or reproductive status did not contribute to the apparent reciprocal relationship between prevalences of CaOx and MAP uroliths in cats during a 17-year period. However, cats of particular breeds, ages, sex, and reproductive status had an increased risk of developing CaOx and MAP uroliths. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:520–525)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of storage temperature and time on pH and specific gravity of and number and size of crystals in urine samples from dogs and cats.

Design—Randomized complete block design.

Animals—31 dogs and 8 cats.

Procedure—Aliquots of each urine sample were analyzed within 60 minutes of collection or after storage at room or refrigeration temperatures (20 vs 6°C [68 vs 43°F]) for 6 or 24 hours.

Results—Crystals formed in samples from 11 of 39 (28%) animals. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals formed in vitro in samples from 1 cat and 8 dogs. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystals formed in vitro in samples from 2 dogs. Compared with aliquots stored at room temperature, refrigeration increased the number and size of crystals that formed in vitro; however, the increase in number and size of MAP crystals in stored urine samples was not significant. Increased storage time and decreased storage temperature were associated with a significant increase in number of CaOx crystals formed. Greater numbers of crystals formed in urine aliquots stored for 24 hours than in aliquots stored for 6 hours. Storage time and temperature did not have a significant effect on pH or specific gravity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urine samples should be analyzed within 60 minutes of collection to minimize temperature- and time-dependent effects on in vitro crystal formation. Presence of crystals observed in stored samples should be validated by reevaluation of fresh urine. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:176–179)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency of and interval until recurrence after initial ammonium urate, calcium oxalate, and struvite uroliths in cats and whether breed, age, or sex was associated with increased risk for urolith recurrence.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—4,435 cats with recurrent uroliths.

Procedures—To identify recurrence of uroliths in cats for which uroliths were submitted for analysis at the Minnesota Urolith Center in 1998, the facility's database was searched for urolith resubmissions from the same cats between 1998 and 2003. Risk factors and differences in mean interval until recurrence were assessed.

Results—Of 221 cats with ammonium urate uroliths in 1998, 29 (13.1%) had a first and 9 (4.1%) had a second recurrence. Mean interval until recurrence was 22 and 43 months for the first and second recurrence, respectively. Of 2,393 cats with calcium oxalate uroliths in 1998, 169 (7.1%) had a first, 15 (0.6%) had a second, and 2 (0.1%) had a third recurrence. Mean interval until recurrence was 25, 38, and 48 months for the first, second, and third recurrence, respectively. Of 1,821 cats with struvite uroliths in 1998, 49 (2.7%) had a first and 3 (0.2%) had a second recurrence. Mean interval until recurrence was 29 months for first and 40 months for second recurrences.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results provided insights into the frequency of urolith recurrence in cats. Because some uroliths associated with recurrent episodes probably were not submitted to our facility, our data likely represented an underestimation of the actual recurrence rate.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether nephrolithiasis was associated with an increase in mortality rate or in the rate of disease progression in cats with naturally occurring stage 2 (mild) or 3 (moderate) chronic kidney disease.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—14 cats with stage 2 (mild) or 3 (moderate) chronic kidney disease (7 with nephroliths and 7 without).

Procedures—All cats were evaluated every 3 months for up to 24 months. Possible associations between nephrolithiasis and clinicopathologic abnormalities, incidence of uremic crises, death secondary to renal causes, and death secondary to any cause were evaluated.

Results—There were no clinically important differences in biochemical, hematologic, or urinalysis variables between cats with and without nephroliths at baseline or after 12 and 24 months of monitoring. No associations were detected between nephrolithiasis and rate of disease progression, incidence of uremic crises, or death.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in cats with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis was not associated with an increase in mortality rate or in the rate of disease progression. Findings support recommendations that cats with severe kidney disease and nephrolithiasis be managed without surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) reduces urinary calcium excretion in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Design—Original study.

Animals—8 dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Procedure—4 treatment protocols were evaluated in each dog (a low calcium, low protein diet designed to prevent calcium oxalate urolith formation with and without administration of HCTZ [2 mg/kg (0.9 mg/lb) of body weight, PO, q 12 h] and a maintenance diet with higher quantities of protein and calcium with and without administration of HCTZ). At the end of each 2-week treatment period, 24-hour urine samples were collected. Blood samples were collected during the midpoint of each urine collection period. Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the effects of HCTZ and diet on urine and serum analytes.

Results—Hydrochlorothiazide significantly decreased urine calcium and potassium concentration and excretion. Hydrochlorothiazide also significantly decreased serum potassium concentration. Compared with the maintenance diet, the urolith prevention diet significantly decreased urine calcium and oxalic acid concentration and excretion. Dogs consuming the urolith prevention diet had significantly lower serum concentrations of albumin and urea nitrogen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of HCTZ decreased urine calcium excretion in dogs with a history of calcium oxalate urolith formation. The greatest reduction in urine calcium concentration and excretion was achieved when dogs received HCTZ and the urolith prevention diet. Results of this study suggest that the hypocalciuric effect of HCTZ will minimize recurrence of calcium oxalate urolith formation in dogs; however, long-term controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of HCTZ. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1583–1586)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify dietary factors in commercially available canned foods associated with the development of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in dogs.

Animals—117 dogs with CaOx uroliths and 174 dogs without urinary tract disease.

Procedure—Case dogs were those that developed CaOx uroliths submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center for quantitative analysis between 1990 and 1992 while fed a commercially available canned diet. Control dogs were those without urinary tract disease evaluated at the same veterinary hospital just prior to or immediately after each case dog. A content-validated multiple-choice questionnaire was mailed to each owner of case and control dogs with the permission of the primary care veterinarian. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions for each dietary component were performed to test the hypothesis that a given factor was associated with CaOx urolith formation.

Results—Canned foods with the highest amount of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, or moisture were associated with a decreased risk of CaOx urolith formation, compared with diets with the lowest amounts. In contrast, canned diets with the highest amount of carbohydrate were associated with an increased risk of CaOx urolith formation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feeding canned diets formulated to contain high amounts of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and moisture and a low amount of carbohydrate may minimize the risk of CaOx urolith formation in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:163–169)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research