Objective—To characterize the biological behavior and prognostic factors associated with hemangiosarcoma in cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—53 cats with hemangiosarcoma.
Procedures—Data were retrieved from a state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, 3 veterinary colleges, and a private practice.
Results—Cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor locations were more common than visceral (abdominal and thoracic) and oral locations. Surgical excision was the primary treatment in 47 cats. Tumor-free surgical margins were more likely in cutaneous than subcutaneous lesions and were associated with longer survival times. Local recurrence was observed in 6 of 12 cats with subcutaneous lesions for which follow-up was available. Metastatic disease was detected in 5 of 13 cats with adequate staging at initial diagnosis. A sixth cat had pulmonary metastases at the time of euthanasia. In 4 of 10 cats with visceral hemangiosarcoma, the diagnosis was made at necropsy or they were euthanized at the time of diagnosis. Adjuvant therapy was uncommonly used. Eighteen of the 21 known deaths or euthanasias were tumor-related. Higher mitotic counts (> 3 in 10 hpfs) were associated with shorter survival times.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma was more biologically aggressive than the cutaneous form and was more likely to recur locally and result in euthanasia or death of the cat. Metastatic potential of the cutaneous and subcutaneous forms may be greater than previously reported. Visceral hemangiosarcoma is associated with a grave prognosis.
The American Association of Veterinary Clinicians (AAVC) convened a Diversity, Equity, and Inclusivity working group in March 2021 to address the limited diversity (including but not limited to ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity) in clinical post-DVM graduate training programs and academic faculty. Concurrent with a working group formation, the AAVC developed a strategic plan. The central mission of the AAVC is to develop, support, and connect academic leaders to fuel the future of the veterinary medical profession. House officers and their training programs are central to all goals outlined in the strategic plan. Amongst other strategic goals, the working group identified best practices for intern and resident recruitment and selection. We report herein from the current health profession literature ways to identify and recruit talented, diverse candidates especially those with non-traditional (atypical) preparation and experience. We also provide recommendations on best practices for intern and resident selection. This document highlights holistic approaches, some of which are incrementally being incorporated into the Veterinary Intern Resident Matching Program application, that emphasize diversity as a selection criteria for intern and resident selection an important step towards building a more resilient and inclusive workforce. These include expanding candidate assessment beyond grades and class rank into a more standardized method for screening candidates that includes consideration of life experiences and talents outside of veterinary medicine.
To evaluate survival times for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone.
109 client-owned dogs recruited from 15 institutions in the United States.
Dogs were treated with prednisone at a dosage of 40 mg/m2, PO, once daily for 7 days and at a dosage of 20 mg/m2, PO, once daily thereafter. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by owners with a visual analog scale when treatment was started (day 0), 1 and 2 weeks after treatment was started, and every 4 weeks thereafter. The primary outcome of interest was survival time as determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with survival time were examined.
Median overall survival time was 50 days (95% CI, 41 to 59 days). Factors associated with survival time included substage (a vs b) and immunopheno-type (B cell vs T cell). Owner-assigned QOL scores on days 0 and 14 were significantly positively correlated with survival time. When QOL score was dichotomized, dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores ≥ 50 had significantly longer survival times, compared with dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores < 50. No variables were predictive of long-term (> 120 days) survival.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that survival times were short for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone. Owner-perceived QOL and clinician-assigned sub-stage were both associated with survival time. Findings provide potentially important information for clinicians to discuss with owners of dogs with lymphoma at the time treatment decisions are made. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:62–71)
To determine if dogs with neoplasia produce more coated platelets, a subpopulation of activated platelets generated by dual stimulation with thrombin and convulxin, a glycoprotein VI agonist, than healthy control dogs.
Client-owned dogs diagnosed with lymphoma (n = 19) or solid tumors (14) and healthy control dogs (14).
Platelets were stimulated ex vivo with thrombin and convulxin. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the percentage of coated platelets based on high levels of surface fibrinogen. To compare the percentage of coated platelets between the three groups, an ANOVA was performed followed by pairwise 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple comparisons using Tukey’s method.
We observed a greater mean percentage of coated platelets in dogs with solid tumors, compared with healthy control dogs, by 10.9 percentage points (95% CI: −1.0, 22.8), and a mean percentage of coated platelets in dogs with lymphoma that was less than healthy control dogs by 0.3 percentage points (95% CI: −11.4, 10.8).
This study provides the first data-based evidence that dogs with solid tumors may have a greater mean coated platelet percentage when compared with healthy control dogs, although there is overlap between groups. Further studies are needed investigating coated platelets in specific subsets of neoplasia and investigating additional mechanisms of hypercoagulability in dogs with neoplasia.