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Objective—To describe a simple method of laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy (LAOHE) and compare duration of surgery, complications, measures of surgical stress, and postoperative pain with open ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in dogs.

Design—Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

Animals—20 healthy sexually intact female dogs weighing > 10 kg (22 lb).

Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to receive conventional OHE or LAOHE. Intraoperative complications, anesthetic complications, total anesthesia time, and total surgery time were recorded. Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured preoperatively and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Pain scores were assigned by a nonblinded observer at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Duration of surgery, pain scores, objective measures of surgical stress, anesthetic complications, and surgical complications were compared between OHE and LAOHE.

Results—Age, weight, PCV, and duration of surgery did not differ between treatment groups. Nine of 10 dogs in the OHE group required additional pain medication on the basis of pain scores, whereas none of the dogs in the LAOHE group did. Blood glucose concentrations were significantly increased from preoperative concentrations in the OHE group at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postoperatively and at 1 hour postoperatively in the LAOHE group. Cortisol concentrations were significantly increased at 1 and 2 hours postoperatively in the OHE group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LAOHE caused less pain and surgical stress than OHE and may be more appropriate for an outpatient setting. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:921–927)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine results of surgery for treatment of soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs and to identify prognostic variables that can be used to predict outcome.


Retrospective case series.


Dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas that had surgical treatment only.


Records were examined for clinically relevant data. Histologic samples were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained by physical examination or telephone conversations with referring veterinarians or owners.


75 dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas of the trunk and extremities were identified. Median age was 10.6 years. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors were of a significantly lower grade than other tumors. Tumors recurred locally in 11 of 75 (15%) dogs. Evaluation for lack of tumor cells at surgical margins was prognostic for local recurrence. Metastatic disease developed in 13 of 75 (17%) dogs. Tumor mitotic rate was prognostic for development of metastasis. Twenty-five of 75 (33%) dogs died of tumor-related causes. Percentage of tumor necrosis and tumor mitotic rate were prognostic for survival time. Median survival time was 1,416 days.

Clinical Implications

On the basis of a low local recurrence rate and high median survival time, wide excision of tumor margins or radical surgery appeared to be an effective means for managing soft-tissue sarcomas of the trunk and extremities. Analysis of histologic characteristics for prognosis supported use of preoperative biopsy. Surgical margins should be evaluated, and early use of aggressive surgery is indicated in the management of soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1147–1151)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association