Objective—To describe clinical signs, diagnostic findings, treatment, and outcome and determine factors associated with survival time for dogs with thymoma.
Design—Multi-institutional retrospective case series.
Animals—116 dogs with thymoma.
Procedures—Medical records were searched for information regarding signalment, physical examination findings, results of laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging, medical and surgical treatment, and survival data.
Results—Of the 116 dogs with thymoma, 44 (38%) were Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers. Twenty of 116 (17%) dogs had signs of myasthenia gravis (diagnosis was confirmed for 13 dogs). At the time of thymoma diagnosis, 40 (34%) dogs had hypercalcemia, 8 (7%) dogs had a concurrent immune-mediated disease, and 31 (27%) dogs had another tumor; 16 (14%) dogs developed a second nonthymic tumor at a later date. Tumor excision was performed for 84 dogs, after which 14 (17%) had tumor recurrence; prognosis was good for dogs undergoing a second surgery. Median survival time with and without surgical treatment was 635 and 76 days, respectively. Presence of another tumor at the time of thymoma diagnosis, lack of surgical excision, and higher pathological stage were significantly associated with shorter survival time. Hypercalcemia and presence of myasthenia gravis or megaesophagus at the time of thymoma diagnosis, histopathologic subtype of thymoma, or tumor development at a later date was not associated with survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with thymoma, even those with a large tumor burden or a paraneoplastic syndrome, had a good prognosis following surgery. Surgical treatment, tumor stage, and the presence of a second tumor at diagnosis influenced survival time.
OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and outcome for cats with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) that underwent surgical excision.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 30 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES Databases of 13 Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology member–affiliated institutions were searched for records of cats with a histologic diagnosis of AGASACA that underwent tumor excision. For each cat, information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the medical record. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median time to local recurrence (TLR), disease-free interval (DFI), and survival time. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with TLR, DFI, and survival time.
RESULTS Perineal ulceration or discharge was the most common clinical sign in affected cats. Eleven cats developed local recurrence at a median of 96 days after AGASACA excision. Incomplete tumor margins and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for local recurrence. Nuclear pleomorphic score was negatively associated with DFI. Local recurrence and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for death. Median DFI and survival time were 234 and 260 days, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, in cats, perineal ulceration or discharge should raise suspicion of AGASACA and prompt rectal and anal sac examinations. Local recurrence was the most common life-limiting event in cats that underwent surgery for treatment of AGASACA, suggesting that wide margins should be obtained whenever possible during AGASACA excision. Efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for treatment of cats with AGASACA requires further investigation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:716–722)