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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine whether feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) DNA is in the corneas of clinically normal cats and cats with eosinophilic keratitis or corneal sequestration.

Sample Population

Corneal biopsy specimens obtained from cats referred for treatment of corneal sequestration or eosinophilic keratitis.

Procedure

Corneal scraping or keratectomy specimens collected from clinically normal cats, cats with eosinophilic keratitis, and cats with corneal sequestration were evaluated for FHV-1 DNA by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from the tissue, and 1 μg was assayed for FHV-1 by use of a single-round (40 cycles) PCR assay with primers directed at a 322-bp region of the thymidine kinase gene. Polymerase chain reaction positivity for clinically normal and affected cats of various breeds was compared by χ2 analysis at α = 0.05.

Results

The FHV-1 DNA was detected in 5.9% (1/17) of corneas from clinically normal cats, in 55.1% (86/156) of corneal sequestra, and in 76.3% (45/59) of scraping specimens from cats with eosinophilic keratitis. Prevalence was significantly (P < 0.001) greater for cats with corneal sequestration or eosinophilic keratitis than for clinically normal cats. For cats with corneal sequestration, prevalence of FHV-1 DNA was significantly lower in Persian and Himalayan, compared with domestic shorthair and longhair breeds.

Conclusion

Data strongly imply involvement of FHV-1 in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic keratitis and corneal sequestration. In Persian and Himalayan breeds, however, other nonviral factors also appear to be involved.

Clinical Relevance

Feline herpesvirus 1 must be considered when treating cats with corneal sequestration or eosinophilic keratitis. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:856–858)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seventy-three aerobic bacterial isolates were cultured from 64 eyes of 63 horses with infectious keratitis. Forty-two (58%) of the organisms isolated initially were gram-positive (g+, 10 genera) and 31 (42%) were gram-negative (g-, 5 genera). After local antimicrobial treatment, repeat cultures from samples obtained from 15 eyes of hospitalized horses yielded 21 secondary bacterial isolates. Staphylococci spp and Streptococci spp were the most common g(+) isolates and accounted for 79% of g(+) organisms isolated initially. Antibiograms revealed ticarcillin to be the most efficacious antibiotic tested on g(+) organisms, with 28 of 30 (93%) being susceptible. Of commercially available topical ophthalmic antibiotics tested on g(+) organisms, erythromycin was the most efficacious, with 32 of 35 (91%) isolates being susceptible. Pseudomonas spp, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter spp accounted for 68% of g(-) organisms isolated initially. Gentamicin, tobramycin, polymyxin B, and neomycin were highly effective in vitro against initial g(-) isolates. Chloramphenicol was ineffective against g(+) and g(-) organisms isolated initially. A significantly (P < 0.05) higher frequency of g(-) organisms was noticed on repeat cultures after intensive topical antimicrobial treatments as compared to organisms isolated at initial examination. Pseudomonas organisms isolated from second cultures were resistant to gentamicin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Overall, secondary g(-) isolates were more susceptible to ciprofloxacin, neomycin, tobramycin, or amikacin than to gentamicin. Fungi were isolated in 24 of 63 (38%) horses in the study. Twenty-five filamentous fungi and 2 yeasts were identified from 24 eyes. Aspergillus spp was the predominant fungi; it was detected in 17 of 22 (77%) eyes in which filamentous fungi were identified.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the effects of oral administration of a high dose of enrofloxacin to cats.

Animals—24 (12 male and 12 female) young healthy cats.

Procedures—Cats were allocated on the basis of sex into 2 groups (4 males and 4 females/ group) from which 3 subgroups for 3 durations (3, 5, or 7 days) of enrofloxacin (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) or control solution (1 mL of water, PO, q 24 h) administration that began on day −1 were created. Funduscopic examinations were performed daily. Electroretinography (ERG) was performed before and every 2 to 3 days after the start of oral administration. Four cats/study group were euthanized on days 3, 5, and 7, and eyes were collected for light and electron microscopic evaluations.

Results—Neurologic, funduscopic, and ERG abnormalities were evident only in cats administered enrofloxacin. Funduscopic changes (granular appearance or graying of the area centralis) were noticed on or before day 3 (after only 3 days of enrofloxacin administration), with subsequent similar changes along the visual streak. Vascular attenuation (between days 2 and 4) and generalized tapetal hyperreflectivity (between days 5 and 7) followed. Reduction in b-wave ERG amplitude preceded funduscopic changes. Morphologic changes in the photoreceptor layers correlated with duration of enrofloxacin administration, with generalized degenerative changes evident after 3 doses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study indicated that a high dose of enrofloxacin (50 mg/kg/d, PO) induced retinal and systemic changes. Enrofloxacin at 10 times the recommended dosage is acutely toxic to the outer retina of clinically normal cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (crd) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with crd. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with crd. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A closely inbred line of Chow Chows affected with congenital cataracts was studied. Sixteen dogs were examined including 1 adult male, 2 adult females, and 13 pups. Twelve of the pups were from 6 different litters, out of 6 different bitches, all sired by 1 adult male. The exact relationship of the thirteenth pup was undetermined. Clinical evaluation included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, biomicroscopic photography, and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Clinical appearance of the cataracts was variable, ranging from incipient nuclear or capsular lesions to advanced cortical opacity. The lens nucleus was most consistently affected, with variable involvement of the lens cortex. Concurrent ocular anomalies of some eyes included wandering nystagmus, entropion, microphthalmia, persistent pupillary membrane remnants, and multifocal retinal folds. A correlation was not apparent between the character or severity of the cataracts and the fnding of the other anomalies. Histologic examination of 12 lenses revealed posterior displacement of the lens nucleus, retained lens epithelial cell nuclei in the nuclear and cortical lens, anterior capsular irregularity and duplication, anterior lens epithelial duplication, and posterior subcapsular migration of epithelium. The high incidence of cataract in this family of Chow Chows suggested an inherited defect, although the inheritance pattern was undetermined.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize features and response to treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) associated with oral administration of etodolac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—65 cases obtained from a survey of veterinary ophthalmologists (group A) and 146 cases reported to Fort Dodge Animal Health (group B).

Procedures—Data analyzed included breed, sex, age, weight, dose and duration of etodolac administration, results of Schirmer tear test at the time of diagnosis and last follow-up, treatments, and response to treatments. Groups A and B were analyzed separately by use of forward stepwise logistic regression models developed to predict probability of complete remission or clinical improvement as a function of several variables.

Results—Most dogs developed severe KCS (84 eyes of 50 dogs [group A]; 111 eyes of 62 dogs [group B]). Resolution of KCS occurred in 7 of 65 (A) and 23 of 146 (B) dogs. No response to treatment was observed in 26 of 65 (A) and 27 of 146 (B) dogs. Fifty-one (A) and 52 (B) dogs had records that were sufficiently complete to use in models. In group B, dogs with etodolac treatment intervals < 6 months prior to the onset of KCS were 4.2 times as likely to have remission as were dogs with treatment intervals ≥ 6 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shorter duration of etodolac administration (< 6 months) was associated with improved outcome in 1 population of dogs. Monitoring of tear production should be considered prior to and during administration of etodolac in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association