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  • Author or Editor: Cathy A. Wyse x
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Abstract

Objective—To apply an in vitro model for assessment of the solid-phase binding capacity of acetaminophen and thus assess the reliability of this marker for evaluation of solid-phase gastric emptying in vivo in animals.

Sample Population—4 test meals.

Procedures—A spectrophotometric method for detection of acetaminophen was validated and applied for assessment of the percentage retention of acetaminophen in the solid phase of 4 test meals. The gastric milieu was simulated by incubating each meal in artificial gastric juice for 2 hours in a shaking water bath maintained at 37°C. Solid-phase retention was then assessed 3 times by measuring the amount of acetaminophen that had leached into the liquid phase.

Results—Acetaminophen was poorly retained in the solid phase of all the test meals examined in the study. There was also a large degree of variability in the percentage retention for each meal when the experiment was repeated 3 times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results of this in vitro study confirmed that acetaminophen may not be an appropriate marker of solid-phase gastric emptying. The acetaminophen gastric emptying test should be applied only for the assessment of liquid-phase emptying in animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the rate of gastric emptying of a semisolid meal by use of the carbon 13-labeled octanoic acid breath test (13C-OBT) and gastric emptying ultrasonography (GEU) in dogs.

Animals—10 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Food was withheld from dogs for 12 hours before ingestion of a test meal (bread, egg, and skimmed milk) containing 13C-octanoic acid. The gastric antrum was visualized by use of a 6.5-MHz microconvex transducer, and the area of the ellipse defined by the craniocaudal and ventrodorsal diameters of the stomach was measured. Samples of expired air and antral images were obtained 30 minutes before ingestion of the test meal and then every 15 minutes for 4 hours and every 30 minutes for a further 2 hours. The half-dose recovery time with the 13C-OBT (t½[BT]) and the gastric half emtying time withGEU (t50%[GEU]) was calculated.

Results—Mean ± SD values for the t½(BT) and t50%(GEU) were 3.44 ± 0.48 hours and 1.89 ± 0.78 hours, respectively. A significant correlation was detected between the t½(BT) and t50%(GEU), although there was a large (1.55 hours) mean difference between these indices.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that there was a correlation between the rate of solid-phase gastric emptying assessed by use of GEU and the 13C-OBT in dogs. Gastric emptying ultrasonography may be a useful, noninvasive method for assessment of the rate of solid-phase gastric emptying in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1557–1562)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the 13C-octanoic acid breath test for determining gastric emptying in dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Food was withheld for 12 hours before each test. Expired air was collected 30 minutes and immediately before each test and at frequent intervals thereafter for 6 hours. Concentration of 13CO2 in expired air was determined by use of continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Basal concentration of 13CO2 was measured in dogs that were not fed a test meal. Effects of the standard unlabeled test meal on basal concentration of 13CO2 were then assessed. The optimum dose of substrate was determined by measuring 13CO2 concentration after ingestion of the standard test meal containing 50 or 100 mg of 13C-octanoic acid, whereas effect of energy density of the test meal on gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of the standard or high-energy labeled test meal. Gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), time to peak 13CO2 concentration (tmax), and half-dose recovery time (t½) were calculated.

Results—Basal concentration of 13CO2 in expired air was not significantly affected by ingestion of the unlabeled test meal. However, 13CO2 concentration significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner after ingestion of the labeled meal. Gastric emptying coefficient, tmax, and t½ were significantly different between dogs fed the standard and high-energy test meals, indicating that ingestion of a high-energy meal delays gastric emptying.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 13C-octanoic acid breath test may be a useful noninvasive and nonradioactive method for assessment of gastric emptying in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1939–1944)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research