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Abstract

Objective—To determine components of the increase in oxygen consumption (O2) and evaluate determinants of hemoglobin saturation (SO2) during incremental treadmill exercise in unfit horses.

Animals—7 unfit adult mares.

Procedures—Horses performed 1 preliminary exercise test (EXT) and 2 experimental EXT. Arterial and mixed venous blood samples and hemodynamic measurements were taken during the last 30 seconds of each step of the GXT to measure PO2, hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), SO2, and determinants of acidbase state (protein, electrolytes, and PCO2).

Results—Increased O2 during exercise was facilitated by significant increases in cardiac output (CO), [Hb], and widening of the arteriovenous difference in O2. Arterial and venous pH, PaO2, and PvO2 decreased during exercise. Arterial PCO2, bicarbonate ([HCO3])a, and [HCO3]v decreased significantly, whereas PvCO2 and increased. Arterial and venous sodium concentration, potassium concentration, strong ion difference, and venous lactate concentration all increased significantly during exercise.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increases in CO, [Hb], and O2 extraction contributed equally to increased O2 during exercise. Higher PCO2 did not provide an independent contribution to shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve (OCD) in venous blood. However, lower PaCO2 shifted the curve leftward, facilitating O2 loading. The shift of ODC resulted in minimal effect on O2 extraction because of convergence of the ODC at lower values of PO2. Decreased pH appeared responsible for the rightward shift of the ODC, which may be necessary to allow maximal O2 extraction at high blood flows achieved during exercise. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1325–1332)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of intradermal tests (IDT), conducted using environmental allergens, in horses without atopy and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Animals—38 horses (22 horses without atopy and 16 horses with COPD).

Procedure—All horses were examined (physical examination, hematologic examination, serum biochemical analyses, examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). An IDT was conducted, using a full panel of 73 allergens consisting of grasses, weeds, trees, molds, and insects. Results of the IDT were evaluated 30 minutes and 4, 6, and 24 hours after injection of allergens. Horses without atopy were euthanatized, and gross and histologic changes of lung parenchyma were assessed.

Results—Horses without atopy had a greater number of positive immediate and late-phase reactions than did horses with COPD. Horses with COPD did not have a significantly greater number of positive reactions than horses without atopy at any time period for any allergen group (grasses, weeds, trees, molds, and insects).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Positive results of IDT document allergen-specific hypersensitivity but do not necessarily distinguish clinically relevant reactions from subclinical reactivity in horses with COPD. Interpreting the clinical relevance of results of IDT requires a thorough knowledge of the medical history, physical examination findings, and environment of each animal. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:389–397)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum concentrations of total magnesium (tMg) and ionized magnesium (iMg), concentrations of magnesium (Mg) in muscle, intracellular Mg (icMg) concentrations, urinary Mg excretion (EMg), Mg clearance (CMg), and fractional clearance of Mg (FCMg) in horses fed diets with Mg content above and below National Research Council recommendations.

Animals—9 young female horses.

Procedures—6 horses were fed a reduced-Mg diet for 29 days followed by an Mg-supplemented diet for 24 days. Control horses (n = 3) were fed grass hay exclusively. Blood, urine, and tissue samples were collected, and an Mg retention test was performed before and after restriction and supplementation of Mg intake. Serum tMg, serum iMg, muscle Mg, icMg, and urine Mg concentrations were measured, and 24-hour EMg, CMg, and FCMg were calculated.

Results—Reductions in urinary 24-hour EMg, CMg, and FCMg were evident after 13 days of feeding a reduced-Mg diet. Serum tMg and iMg concentrations, muscle Mg content, and results of the Mg retention test were not affected by feeding the Mg-deficient diet. Spot urine sample FCMg accurately reflected FCMg calculated from 6- and 24-hour pooled urine samples. Mean ± SD FCtMg of horses eating grass hay was 29 ± 8%, whereas mean FCtMg for horses fed a reduced-Mg diet for 29 days was 6 ± 3%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 24-hour EMg was the most sensitive indicator of reduced Mg intake in horses. Spot sample FCMg can be conveniently used to identify horses consuming a diet deficient in Mg. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:422–430)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine effects of feeding diets with various soluble-carbohydrate (CHO) content on rates of muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise in horses.

Animals—7 fit horses.

Procedures—In a 3-way crossover study, horses received each of 3 isocaloric diets (a high soluble CHO [HC] diet, a low soluble CHO [LC] diet, or a mixed soluble CHO [MC] diet). For each diet, horses were subjected to glycogen-depleting exercise, followed by feeding of the HC, LC, or MC diet at 8-hour intervals for 72 hours.

Results—Feeding the HC diet resulted in a significantly higher glycemic response for 72 hours and significantly greater muscle glycogen concentration at 48 and 72 hours after exercise, compared with results after feeding the MC and LC diets. Muscle glycogen concentrations similar to baseline concentrations were detected in samples obtained 72 hours after exercise in horses when fed the HC diet. Rate of glycogen synthesis was significantly higher when horses were fed the HC diet, compared with values when horses were fed the MC and LC diets. Glycogen synthase activity was inversely related to glycogen content. Protein content of glucose transporter-4 was the lowest at 72 hours after exercise when horses were fed the HC diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muscle glycogen synthesis was slower after glycogen-depleting exercise in horses, compared with synthesis in humans. Feeding HC meals after strenuous exercise hastened replenishment of muscle glycogen content, compared with results for feeding of LC and MC diets, by increasing availability of blood glucose to skeletal muscles. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:916–923)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare responses to a variety of intradermally injected allergens among healthy horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), recurrent urticaria (RU), and atopic dermatitis-insect hypersensitivity (allergic dermatitis [AD]).

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—86 horses.

Procedure—Results of intradermal testing for horses with COPD, RU, or AD were compared with results for healthy horses.

Results—Compared with healthy horses, horses with COPD, RU, and AD were significantly more likely to have positive (≥ 3+) reactions to intradermal allergens (molds, weeds, trees, grasses-crops, and insects) 30 minutes (immediate reaction), 4 hours (late-phase reactions), and 24 hours (delayed-phase reactions) after exposure. In addition, diseased horses reacted to a significantly higher number of allergens in each allergen group than did healthy horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reactions to individual allergens should not be used to determine that horses have hypersensitivity. Overall patterns of reactivity to intradermal allergens may be helpful in management when used in conjunction with a compatible history and evidence of potential exposure to allergens in horses with conditions associated with hypersensitivity to environmental allergens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;62:1115–1121)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of experimentally induced hypercalcemia on serum concentrations and urinary excretion of electrolytes, especially ionized magnesium (iMg), in healthy horses.

Animals—21 clinically normal mares.

Procedures—Horses were assigned to 5 experimental protocols (1, hypercalcemia induced with calcium gluconate; 2, hypercalcemia induced with calcium chloride; 3, infusion with dextrose solution; 4, infusion with sodium gluconate; and 5, infusion with saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Hypercalcemia was induced for 2 hours. Dextrose, sodium gluconate, and saline solution were infused for 2 hours. Blood samples were collected to measure serum concentrations of electrolytes, creatinine, parathyroid hormone, and insulin. Urine samples were collected to determine the fractional excretion of ionized calcium (iCa), iMg, sodium, phosphate, potassium, and chloride.

Results—Hypercalcemia induced by administration of calcium gluconate or calcium chloride decreased serum iMg, potassium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations; increased phosphate concentration; and had no effect on sodium, chloride, and insulin concentrations. Hypercalcemia increased urinary excretion of iCa, iMg, sodium, phosphate, potassium, and chloride; increased urine output; and decreased urine osmolality and specific gravity. Dextrose administration increased serum insulin; decreased iMg, potassium, and phosphate concentrations; and decreased urinary excretion of iMg. Sodium gluconate increased the excretion of iCa, sodium, and potassium.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypercalcemia resulted in hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia; increased urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphate, and chloride; and induced diuresis. This study has clinical implications because hypercalcemia and excessive administration of calcium have the potential to increase urinary excretion of electrolytes, especially iMg, and induce volume depletion.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 2-year-old Thoroughbred filly was evaluated because of hemorrhage from the vulva and suspected hematuria of 5 days' duration.

Clinical Findings—A primary coagulopathy was ruled out on the basis of results of hematologic testing. Vaginoscopy and cystoscopy revealed a large bleeding mass in the bladder that extended into the vagina, causing marked obliteration of normal urogenital structures and difficulty in urination. Histologic examination of endoscopic and surgical biopsy speci-mens revealed a poorly differentiated neoplasia likely of mesenchymal origin. Chronic suppurative cystitis caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus was also diagnosed.

Treatment and Outcome—The tumor continued to grow despite treatment with doxorubicin and, within 45 days, was causing substantial discomfort and stranguria. Given the grave prognosis, the horse was euthanized. At necropsy, the tumor was found to have caused widespread destruction of the urinary bladder and to have invaded the broad ligament of the uterus. The mass was identified as a poorly differentiated leiomyosarcoma on the basis of results of histologic examination and immunohistochemical staining for α-actin.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that leiomyosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis when examining horses with urogenital bleeding.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate calcium balance and parathyroid gland function in healthy horses and horses with enterocolitis and compare results of an immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA) with those of an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for determination of serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in horses.

Animals—64 horses with enterocolitis and 62 healthy horses.

Procedures—Blood and urine samples were collected for determination of serum total calcium, ionized calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), phosphorus, BUN, total protein, creatinine, albumin, and PTH concentrations, venous blood gases, and fractional urinary clearance of calcium (FCa) and phosphorus (FP). Serum concentrations of PTH were measured in 40 horses by use of both the IRMA and ICMA.

Results—Most (48/64; 75%) horses with enterocolitis had decreased serum total calcium, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations and increased phosphorus concentrations, compared with healthy horses. Serum PTH concentration was increased in most (36/51; 70.6%) horses with hypocalcemia. In addition, FCa was significantly decreased and FP significantly increased in horses with enterocolitis, compared with healthy horses. Results of ICMA were in agreement with results of IRMA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enterocolitis in horses is often associated with hypocalcemia; 79.7% of affected horses had ionized hypocalcemia. Because FCa was low, it is unlikely that renal calcium loss was the cause of hypocalcemia. Serum PTH concentrations varied in horses with enterocolitis and concomitant hypocalcemia. However, we believe low PTH concentration in some hypocalcemic horses may be the result of impaired parathyroid gland function. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:938–947)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To clone and sequence the cDNA for feline preproparathyroid hormone (preproPTH) and to compare that sequence with other known parathyroid hormone (PTH) sequences.

Sample Population—Parathyroid glands from 1 healthy cat.

Procedure—A cDNA library was constructed in λ phage from feline parathyroid gland mRNA and screened with a radiolabeled canine PTH probe. Positive clones were sequenced, and nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed and compared with known preproPTH and PTH sequences.

Result—Screening of approximately 2 X 105 recombinant plaques revealed 3 that hybridized with the canine PTH probe; 2 clones comprised the complete sequence for feline preproPTH. Feline preproPTH cDNA consisted of a 63-base pair (bp) 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 348-bp coding region, and a 326-bp 3'-UTR. The coding region encoded a 115-amino acid peptide. Mature feline PTH consisted of 84 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that feline PTH was > 83% identical to canine, bovine, swine, equine, human, and macaque PTH and 69, 71, and 44% identical to mouse, rat, and chicken PTH, respectively. Within the region responsible for hormonal activity (amino acids 1 to 34), feline PTH was > 79% identical to other mammalian PTH sequences and 64% identical to the chicken sequence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The amino acid sequence of PTH is conserved among mammalian species. Knowledge of the cDNA sequence for feline PTH may be useful to investigate disturbances of calcium metabolism and alterations in PTH expression in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:194–197)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research