Objective—To determine effects of early intensive postoperative physiotherapy on limb function in dogs after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for deficiency of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL).
Animals—8 adult dogs with CCL deficiency.
Procedure—After TPLO, dogs underwent a physiotherapy program 3 times/wk (physiotherapy group; n = 4) or a walking program (home-exercise group; 4). All dogs were evaluated before surgery, 1 and 10 days after surgery, and 3 and 6 weeks after surgery. Thigh circumference (TC), stifle joint flexion and extension range of motion (ROM), lameness, and weight-bearing scores were recorded.
Results—Before surgery, CCL-deficient limbs had significantly reduced TC and reduced flexion and extension ROMs, compared with values for the contralateral control limb. Six weeks after TPLO, the physiotherapy group had significantly larger TC than the home-exercise group, with the difference no longer evident between the affected and nonaffected limbs. Extension and flexion ROMs were significantly greater in the physiotherapy group, compared with values for the home-exercise group, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery. Six weeks after surgery, the difference in flexion and extension ROMs was no longer evident between the affected and nonaffected limbs in the physiotherapy group. Both groups had improvements for lameness and weight-bearing scores over time, but no difference was found between the 2 groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After TPLO in CCL-deficient dogs, early physiotherapy intervention should be considered as part of the postoperative management to prevent muscle atrophy, build muscle mass and strength, and increase stifle joint flexion and extension ROMs.
Objective—To determine cellular changes associated with secondary epidermal laminae (SEL) in forefeet and hind feet of ponies with insulin-induced laminitis.
Procedures—Laminitis was induced in 4 ponies by IV administration of insulin and glucose; 4 control ponies received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IV. Laminar tissue samples obtained from the dorsal aspects of the hooves were histologically evaluated. Primary epidermal lamina (PEL) length and width and SEL length, width, and angle were determined. Numbers of epidermal cell nuclei per micrometer and per total length of SEL and numbers of apoptotic and proliferative cells in axial, middle, and abaxial laminar regions were determined.
Results—SEL in treatment group ponies were significantly longer, were significantly narrower, and had a smaller angle relative to PEL in all laminar regions versus control ponies. In treatment group ponies, the number of epidermal cell nuclei per SEL was typically higher and the number of cells per micrometer of SEL was lower in laminar regions, apoptotic cell numbers were higher in abaxial and middle regions in forefeet and hind feet, and proliferating cell numbers were higher in axial laminar regions in forefeet and all laminar regions in hind feet, versus control ponies.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated SEL elongation, narrowing, and alteration in orientation developed in all feet of ponies with insulin-induced laminitis. This was primarily attributable to cell stretching that developed at the same time as an accelerated cell death–proliferation cycle; differences in cell cycle responses among laminar regions between forefeet and hind feet may have been attributable to differences in load bearing.