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  • Author or Editor: Catherine M. Creighton x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on cardiopulmonary function and depth of anesthesia in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

Design—Prospective, randomized crossover study.

Animals—10 healthy adult Standardbreds.

Procedures—Horses were premedicated with xylazine or medetomidine IV. Anesthesia was induced with diazepam and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane for 150 minutes. For the xylazine treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.7%, and xylazine (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IV) was administered as a bolus at the end of anesthesia. For the MCRI treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.4%, and medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg/h [0.0023 mg/lb/h], IV) was infused throughout anesthesia. Physiologic data (ie, heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, bispectral index, and electromyographic values) were compared between treatments with xylazine bolus versus MCRI.

Results—Heart rate was lower, but mean arterial blood pressure was higher from 20 to 40 minutes with MCRI treatment, compared with conventional treatment with xylazine. Respiratory rate and rectal temperature were greater with MCRI treatment. Bispectral index was lower with MCRI treatment from 80 to 150 minutes, and electromyographic values were lower with MCRI treatment from 30 to 150 minutes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In isoflurane-anesthetized horses, premedication with medetomidine followed by administration of medetomidine as a constant rate infusion resulted in decreased heart rate, higher arterial blood pressure from 20 through 40 minutes after induction of anesthesia, and better preserved body temperature, compared with conventional treatment with xylazine. Greater depth of anesthesia and muscle relaxation were seen with MCRI treatment, despite the lower isoflurane concentration.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effect of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

Design—Prospective, randomized crossover study.

Animals—10 healthy Standardbreds.

Procedures—Horses were premedicated with xylazine or medetomidine IV. Anesthesia was induced with diazepam and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane for 150 minutes. For the xylazine treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.7% and xylazine (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]), IV) was administered as a bolus at the end of anesthesia. For the MCRI treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.4% and medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg/h [0.0023 mg/lb/h], IV) was infused throughout anesthesia. Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were measured before, during, and after anesthesia. Urine specific gravity and volume were measured during anesthesia. Unassisted anesthetic recoveries were recorded by a digital video camera for later evaluation by 2 observers who were blinded to treatment.

Results—Serum cortisol concentration was lower and serum glucose concentration was higher with MCRI treatment, compared with xylazine treatment. Time to sternal recumbency was longer with MCRI treatment, but no difference was seen between treatments for times to extubation, first movement, or standing. Objective (mean attempt interval) and subjective (visual analog score) recovery scores were significantly better with MCRI treatment, compared with xylazine treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In isoflurane-anesthetized horses, premedication and administration of medetomidine as a constant rate infusion resulted in decreased serum cortisol concentration, increased serum glucose concentration, and superior anesthetic recovery characteristics, compared with conventional treatment with xylazine.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association