OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) in tumor-bearing dogs concurrently treated with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and furosemide.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 55 dogs.
PROCEDURES Record databases of 2 specialty practices were searched to identify dogs treated with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in conjunction with furosemide for a minimum of 28 days between January 2009 and December 2015. Information extracted from the records included signalment, tumor diagnosis, cyclophosphamide and furosemide dosages, and concurrent medications. Confirmed SHC was defined as the presence of gross or microscopic hematuria and clinical signs associated with lower urinary tract disease in the absence of infection or neoplasia of the urinary tract; the definition for suspected SHC was the same, except the absence of infection or neoplasia of the urinary tract was not confirmed.
RESULTS Cyclophosphamide dosage varied from 6.5 to 18.6 mg/m2 once daily to 6.3 to 49.2 mg/m2 every other day. Median duration of cyclophosphamide administration was 272 days (range, 28 to 1,393 days). Median cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide administered was 2,898 mg/m2 (range, 224 to 14,725 mg/m2). Median furosemide dose was 1.4 mg/kg (0.64 mg/lb). Confirmed or suspected SHC was identified in 2 of 55 (3.6%) dogs. Cyclophosphamide administration was discontinued for the dog with confirmed SHC but not the dog with suspected SHC.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that oral administration of furosemide in conjunction with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy was associated with a low incidence of SHC, which suggested that furosemide may protect against cyclophosphamide-induced SHC.
CASE DESCRIPTION 4 dogs with a slow-growing mass in the cervical region were evaluated.
CLINICAL FINDINGS All dogs had no clinical signs at the time of the evaluation. There was no apparent evidence of visceral metastases or other primary tumor based on available CT or MRI data for any dog.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME For each dog, surgery to remove the mass was performed. Histologic examination of the excised tissue revealed a completely excised grade 1 or 2 lymph node hemangiosarcoma. All dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy; 2 dogs underwent curative intent chemotherapy, 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide, and 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with chlorambucil. The survival time was 259 days in 1 dog; 3 dogs were still alive 615, 399, and 365 days after surgery.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in dogs is a rare and, to the authors' knowledge, previously undescribed disease that appears to develop in the cervical lymph nodes as a slow-growing mass or masses. Surgical excision and adjunct treatment resulted in long survival times for 3 of the 4 dogs of the present report. Given the aggressive biologic behavior of hemangiosarcomas in other body locations, adjunct chemotherapy should be considered for affected dogs, although its role in the cases described in this report was unclear. Additional clinical information is required to further characterize the biologic behavior of this tumor type and determine the expected survival times and associated risk factors in dogs.