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  • Author or Editor: Catherine L. Wilhelmsen x
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Abstract

Objective—To develop an aerosol exposure method for induction of brucellosis in rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ).

Animals—10 adult rhesus macaques.

Procedure—8 rhesus macaques were challenge exposed with 102 to 105 colony-forming units of Brucella melitensis 16M by use of an aerosol-exposure technique, and 2 served as control animals. All macaques were euthanatized 63 days after challenge exposure. Gross and microscopic lesions, bacterial burden in target organs, and histologic changes in tissues were evaluated.

Results—Grossly, spleen weights were increased in exposed macaques, compared with spleen weights in control macaques. Histologically, there was inflammation in the liver, kidneys, spleen, testes, and epididymides in exposed macaques. The spleen and lymph nodes had increased numbers of lymphohistiocytic cells. Morphometrically, the spleen also had an increased ratio of white pulp to red pulp. Areas of hepatitis and amount of splenic white pulp increased with increasing exposure dose.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pathologic findings in rhesus macaques after aerosol exposure to B melitensis are similar to those observed in humans with brucellosis.

Impact for Human Medicine—These results may aid in the development of a vaccine against brucellosis that can be used in humans. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65: 644–652)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Tissues from cattle that died of experimentally induced mucosal disease (n = 3), naturally acquired mucosal disease (n = 6), or naturally acquired chronic bovine viral diarrhea (n = 4) were examined. Consistent findings were lymphocytic depletion of lymphoid tissues, degeneration of myenteric ganglion cells, and mild adrenalitis. Intracytoplasmic viral antigen was detected in myenteric ganglia and in endocrine glandular cells. Noncytopathic virus was isolated from all cattle, and cytopathic virus was isolated from 12 of 13 cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Leukocytosis (34,600 wbc/μl of blood) was detected in an apparently healthy 7-day-old Holstein heifer. Analysis of blood samples obtained over the next 41 days revealed chronic progressive neutrophilia, which peaked at > 85% neutrophils and exceeded 100,000 wbc/μl. In vitro assessment of isolated blood neutrophils obtained from the heifer at 38 and 45 days of age revealed selected functional abnormalities. Endocytosis of immunoglobulin-opsonized Staphylococcus aureus and killing of this test organism by the calf’s neutrophils were significantly diminished, as were phagocytosis-associated superoxide generation, chemiluminescence activity, and myeloperoxidase-catalyzed iodination. Diminished H2O2 elaboration by the calf’s neutrophils was evident during ingestion of opsonized zymosan or on exposure to phorbol myristate acetate. Extracellular release (secretion) of elastase during ingestion of zymosan was also diminished, although total cell content of elastase was normal, compared with that of neutrophils from age-matched calves, and granular or other morphologic abnormalities of the calf’s neutrophils were not evident by ultrastructural examination. Abnormalities of random migration were inconsistently detected, and normal or high degree of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity or natural killing by the calf’s neutrophils was observed. Similar in vitro assessment of neutrophils obtained from the calf’s dam revealed no functional abnormalities. The calf died at 48 days of age, with persistent fever and chronic diarrhea, despite administration of antibiotics. Histologic examination at necropsy revealed large numbers of intravascular neutrophils in most tissues, including massive neutrophil sequestration in spleen. However, a striking lack of extravascular neutrophils was evident in inflamed submucosa adjacent to intestinal ulcers heavily contaminated with enteric microorganisms. Bone marrow examination revealed diffuse myeloid hyperplasia, but no other abnormalities.

The clinical and pathologic features in this calf were similar to those in previously reported human patients or Irish Setters with genetic deficiency of the CD11/CD18 leukocyte glycoprotein complex, thus prompting further postmortem evaluations. Results of immunoblot analyses of the neutrophil lysates of the heifer calf (isolated and stored prior to death) documented severe deficiency of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). Results of immunofluorescent analyses indicated substantially diminished (intermediate) amounts ofthe Mac-1 β subunit (CD18) on blood neutrophils of the calf's dam and sire and on neutrophils of 8 of 15 paternal half-siblings; findings were consistent with an autosomal recessive trait in the proband's kindred. Findings also indicate that genetic abnormalities of CD11/CD18 proteins may underlie the molecular pathogenesis of disease in this calf as well as other previously described examples of the granulocytopathy syndrome in Holstein cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research