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  • Author or Editor: Catherine L. Radtke x
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Abstract

Objective—To characterize equine muscle tissue– and periosteal tissue–derived cells as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and assess their proliferation capacity and osteogenic potential in comparison with bone marrow– and adipose tissue–derived MSCs.

Sample—Tissues from 10 equine cadavers.

Procedures—Cells were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue, periosteal tissue from the distomedial aspect of the right tibia, bone marrow aspirates from the fourth and fifth sternebrae, and adipose tissue from the left subcutaneous region. Mesenchymal stem cells were characterized on the basis of morphology, adherence to plastic, trilineage differentiation, and detection of stem cell surface markers via immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Mesenchymal stem cells were tested for osteogenic potential with osteocalcin gene expression via real-time PCR assay. Mesenchymal stem cell cultures were counted at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours to determine tissue-specific MSC proliferative capacity.

Results—Equine muscle tissue– and periosteal tissue–derived cells were characterized as MSCs on the basis of spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic, trilineage differentiation, presence of CD44 and CD90 cell surface markers, and nearly complete absence of CD45 and CD34 cell surface markers. Muscle tissue–, periosteal tissue–, and adipose tissue–derived MSCs proliferated significantly faster than did bone marrow–derived MSCs at 72 and 96 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Equine muscle and periosteum are sources of MSCs. Equine muscle- and periosteal-derived MSCs have osteogenic potential comparable to that of equine adipose- and bone marrow–derived MSCs, which could make them useful for tissue engineering applications in equine medicine.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine changes in the distal ends of the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones (MCIII and MTIII) of Thoroughbred racehorses that had sustained a catastrophic condylar fracture during highspeed exercise.

Sample Population—Fractured and contralateral MCIIIs and MTIIIs from 11 Thoroughbred racehorses that sustained a displaced condylar fracture during racing, both MCIIIs from 5 Thoroughbred racehorses euthanatized because of a catastrophic injury other than a condylar fracture, and both MCIIIs from 5 horses of other breeds that had not been professionally trained or raced.

Procedure—Macroscopic observations were made of the distal ends of the bones before and after digestion of the articular cartilage with NaOH.

Results—In all 11 racehorses with a displaced condylar fracture, the fracture was associated with a branching array of cracks in the condylar groove. In this region, fracture margins were smooth, and there was loss of subchondral bone. Comminution of the dorsal cortex was also seen. Parasagittal linear wear lines in the articular cartilage, erosions in the articular cartilage of the condyles, loss of the underlying subchondral bone, and cracking of condylar grooves were all more severe in the Thoroughbred racehorses than in the horses that had not been professionally trained or raced.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that condylar fractures in horses are pathologic fatigue or stress fractures that arise from a preexisting, branching array of cracks in the condylar groove of the distal end of MCIII or MTIII. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1110–1116)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research