Objective—To determine whether there is evidence of myocardial injury in horses with acute abdominal disease.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—18 healthy horses and 69 horses with acute abdominal disease.
Procedures—18 healthy horses had been admitted to the hospital for investigation and were assigned to group 1. Horses examined for acute abdominal disease were assigned to 3 groups: strangulating obstruction, nonstrangulating obstruction, or inflammatory disease (groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively). Heart rate, Hct, and blood lactate and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations were measured at initial examination. Myocardial function was assessed by echocardiographic measurement of fractional shortening and left ventricular ejection time (LVET). Heart rhythm was evaluated via ECG.
Results—The proportion of horses with high (> 0.03 ng/mL) cTnI concentration was significantly greater among horses with strangulating (9/25 [36%]) or inflammatory (9/19 [47%]) lesions, compared with healthy horses (0/18). The proportion of horses with high cTnI concentration was significantly greater among nonsurvivors (12/24 [50%]) than among survivors (10/45 [22%]). Serum cTnI concentration was positively correlated with Hct, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration and negatively correlated with LVET.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evidence of myocardial injury was observed in horses with acute abdominal disease, and this injury was associated with severity of illness. Recognition of myocardial injury could improve treatment of acute abdominal disease in horses.
Objective—To assess the use of stored equine colostrum for the treatment of foals perceived to be at risk for failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI).
Animals—232 Thoroughbred foals and 191 Thoroughbred mares (41 mares gave birth to 1 foal on 2 occasions).
Procedures—Postpartum, presuckle colostrum samples were collected from mares; samples with a colostral refractive index (cRI) ≥ 23% were frozen (−20°C [–4°F]) and stored for ≥ 7 days but < 2 years. Foals of dams that produced colostrum with a cRI value < 20% were treated with ≥ 300 mL of stored colostrum that was thawed and administered via nasogastric tube on 1 to 4 occasions within 6 hours after parturition. Serum samples were obtained from colostrum-treated and nontreated foals 24 hours after treatment or suckling, respectively, for determination of serum IgG (sIgG) concentration.
Results—8 foals and their respective dams were excluded from the analyses. For the remaining 30 treated and 194 nontreated foals, mean ± SD sIgG concentration was 1,597 ± 574 mg/dL. Thirteen (5.8%) foals had sIgG concentrations < 800 mg/dL, of which 1 (0.4%) had an sIgG concentration < 400 mg/dL. Nine of these foals had suckled mares producing colostrum with a cRI value ≥ 20%, and 2 foals had been treated with stored colostrum.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with stored colostrum appeared to be effective for prevention of FTPI in at-risk foals. However, foals were still at risk for FTPI despite suckling of or treatment with colostrum with adequate cRI values.
Objective—To determine historical, physical examination,
clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in
horses with putative uremic encephalopathy.
Animals—5 horses with renal failure and neurologic
disease not attributable to abnormalities in any other
Procedure—Medical records from 1978 to 1998 were
examined for horses with renal disease and neurologic
signs not attributable to primary neurologic, hepatic,
or other diseases. Signalment, history, physical
examination findings, clinicopathologic data, renal
ultrasonographic findings, and postmortem data were
Results—Of 332 horses with renal disease, 5 met
selection criteria. Historical findings, physical examination
findings, clinicopathologic data, ultrasonographic
data, and postmortem findings were consistent
with chronic renal failure. Swollen astrocytes
were detected in all 4 horses examined at necropsy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single criterion
was not determined to be pathognomonic for
uremic encephalopathy in horses. Uremic encephalopathy
should be considered as a differential diagnosis
in horses with evidence of chronic renal failure
and encephalopathic neurologic sign not attributable
to other causes. Astrocyte swelling, which was common
to all 4 horses examined at necropsy, may
serve as a microscopic indicator of uremic
encephalopathy in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc