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Fatty acids have a number of important roles in the body. These include, among others, serving as a source of fuel, transporting fat-soluble vitamins, serving structural functions as part of cell membranes, and being involved in cell regulation and signaling. Fatty acids are also used for management of disease, giving them a unique role as a nutraceutical, which is a nutrient that has properties of a drug. 1,2 The objective of the information reported here is to provide an overview of topics related to fatty acids and to improve general understanding of these topics.

Fatty Acid Nomenclature

Fatty acids

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether short-term administration of an oral glucosamine–chondroitin sulfate (Glu-CS) supplement alters serum fructosamine concentration in healthy dogs.

Design—Prospective crossover study.

Animals—12 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs received Glu-CS and a placebo for 3 weeks each, with a 4-week minimum washout period between treatments. Serum fructosamine concentration was measured 4 times for each dog: prior to the first treatment period, at the end of the first treatment period, at the end of the washout period, and at the end of the second treatment period.

Results—No significant change in serum fructosamine concentration was identified after treatment with either Glu-CS or the placebo. The change in serum fructosamine concentration associated with Glu-CS administration was not significantly different from the change in concentration associated with administration of the placebo.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in healthy dogs, short-term (ie, 21 days) oral Glu-CS administration does not affect glycemic control or cause diabetes mellitus.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical and immunologic response in healthy dogs to infusions of human serum albumin (HSA).

Animals—9 healthy purpose-bred mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Each dog was administered a 25% HSA solution once or twice. Various physical examination and laboratory variables were serially evaluated. Antibody against HSA was assayed before and after infusion by use of an ELISA. Intradermal testing was also conducted. A repeated-measures ANOVA or Friedman repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare results for the variables.

Results—Adverse clinical reactions were observed after the first or second infusion in 3 dogs. Anaphylactoid reactions were observed in 1 of 9 dogs during the first infusion and in 2 of 2 dogs administered a second infusion. Two dogs developed severe edema and urticaria 6 or 7 days after an initial infusion. All dogs developed anti-HSA antibodies. Positive responses for ID tests were observed in 8 of 9 dogs. Short-term increases were detected in blood protein, total bilirubin, and calcium concentrations after HSA infusion. Serum cholesterol concentrations and platelet counts decreased after HSA infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of HSA resulted in profound reactions in 2 of 9 dogs administered a single infusion and in 2 of 2 dogs administered a second infusion. This indicates that there is risk of life-threatening adverse reactions to HSA infusion in healthy dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research