Objective—To compare dogs with glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism (GDH) with those with mineralocorticoid- and glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism (MGDH) and determine prevalence, historical and clinicopathologic markers, and outcome of dogs with GDH.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—46 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism.
Procedures—Records in the veterinary medical database at Purdue University were searched for dogs in which hypoadrenocorticism had been diagnosed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1985 to 2005. Data pertaining to signalment, history, a minimum clinicopathologic database, treatment, and outcome were collected. Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were classified as having MGDH if hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, or both were detected and as having GDH if hyponatremia and hyperkalemia were absent. Dogs were excluded if they had ever been treated with mitotane or had been treated with > 1 dose of corticosteroids within a month prior to the ACTH-stimulation test.
Results—35 dogs with MGDH and 11 dogs with GDH met the inclusion criteria. Dogs with GDH were older at the time of diagnosis and had a longer duration of clinical signs prior to diagnosis than those with MGDH. Dogs with GDH were more likely to be anemic, hypoalbuminemic, and hypocholesterolemic than dogs with MGDH.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—GDH was more common than reported in a referral hospital population of dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism. Definitive diagnosis of GDH remains a clinical challenge. Absence of a stress leukogram in dogs with signs of illness (especially relating to the gastrointestinal tract) warrants further investigation. Most dogs with primary cortisol deficiency do not develop mineralocorticoid deficiency.
Objective—To determine the effect of vaccination on
serum concentrations of total and antigen-specific IgE
Animals—20 female Beagles.
Procedure—Groups of 5 dogs each were vaccinated
repeatedly between 8 weeks and 4 years of age with
a multivalent and rabies vaccine, a multivalent vaccine
only, or a rabies vaccine only. A fourth group of 5 dogs
served as unvaccinated controls. Serum concentrations
of total immunoglobulins and antigen-specific
IgE were determined following vaccination.
Results—The multivalent vaccine had little effect
on serum total IgE concentrations. The concentration
of IgE increased slightly following vaccination
for rabies at 16 weeks and 1 year of age and
increased greatly after vaccination at 2 and 3 years
of age in most dogs, with a distinct variation
between individual dogs. Vaccination had no effect
on serum concentrations of IgA, IgG, and IgM as
measured at 2 and 3 years of age. The rabies vaccine
contained aluminum adjuvant in contrast to the
multivalent vaccine. An increase of IgE that was
reactive with vaccine antigens, including bovine
serum albumin and bovine fibronectin, was detected
in some of the dogs vaccinated for rabies. There
was no significant correlation between serum concentrations
of total IgE and antigen-specific IgE following
vaccination. Serum total IgE concentration
rapidly returned to preimmunization concentrations
in most dogs, but high concentrations of antigenspecific
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of
dogs for rabies increases serum concentrations of total
IgE and induces IgE specific for vaccine antigens, including
tissue culture residues. Vaccination history should be
considered in the interpretation of serum total IgE concentrations.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:611–616)
Objective—To evaluate and compare characteristics of a commercially manufactured protamine zinc insulin (PZI) product and PZI products obtained from various compounding pharmacies.
Sample—112 vials of PZI (16 vials of the commercially manufactured product and 8 vials from each of 12 compounding pharmacies) purchased over an 8-month period.
Procedures—Validated methods were used to analyze 2 vials of each product at 4 time points. Appearance, endotoxin concentration, crystal size, insulin concentration in the supernatant, pH, total insulin and zinc concentrations, and species of insulin origin were evaluated.
Results—All 16 vials of commercially manufactured PZI met United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifications. Of 96 vials of compounded PZI, 1 (1 %) contained a concentration of endotoxin > 32 endotoxin U/mL, 23 (24%) had concentrations of insulin in the supernatant > 1.0 U/mL, and 45 (47%) had pH values < 7.1 or > 7.4; all of these values were outside of specifications. Several vials of compounded PZI (52/96 [54%]) did not meet specifications for zinc concentration (0.06 to 0.1 mg/mL for 40 U of insulin/mL, 0.075 to 0.12 mg/mL for 50 U of insulin/mL, and 0.15 to 0.25 mg/mL for 100 U of insulin/mL), and total insulin concentration in 36 [38%] vials was < 90% of the labeled concentration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Only 1 of 12 compounded PZI products met all USP specifications in all vials tested. Use of compounded PZI insulin products could potentially lead to serious problems with glycemic control in veterinary patients.
Objective—To determine whether the increasing
prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism is the result of
aging of the cat population and whether consumption
of canned foods at various times throughout life is
associated with increased risk of hyperthyroidism.
Design—Retrospective and case-control studies.
Study Population—Medical records of 169,576 cats,
including 3,570 cats with hyperthyroidism, evaluated
at 9 veterinary school hospitals during a 20-year period,
and 109 cats with hyperthyroidism (cases) and 173
cats without hyperthyroidism (controls).
Procedure—Age-adjusted hospital prevalence of
hyperthyroidism was calculated by use of Veterinary
Medical Database records. On the basis of owners'
questionnaire responses, logistic regression was
used to evaluate associations between consumption
of canned food and development of hyperthyroidism.
Results—Age-specific hospital prevalence of feline
hyperthyroidism increased significantly from 1978 to
1997. Overall, consumption of pop-top canned (vs dry)
food at various times throughout life and each additional
year of age were associated with greater risk of
developing hyperthyroidism. In female cats, increased
risk was associated with consumption of food packaged
in pop-top cans or in combinations of pop-top
and non-pop-top cans. In male cats, increased risk
was associated with consumption of food packaged
in pop-top cans and age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings
suggest that the increasing prevalence of feline
hyperthyroidism is not solely the result of aging of the
cat population and that canned foods may play a role.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:879–886)
Objective—To determine whether routine vaccination
induces antibodies against bovine thyroglobulin
and autoantibodies against canine thyroglobulin in
Animals—20 healthy research Beagles and 16 healthy
Procedure—For the research Beagles, 5 dogs were
vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine and a rabies
vaccine, 5 dogs received only the multivalent vaccine,
5 dogs received only the rabies vaccine, and 5 dogs
were unvaccinated controls. The multivalent vaccine
was administered at 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 26, and 52
weeks of age and every 6 months thereafter. The
rabies vaccine was administered at 16 and 52 weeks
of age and then once per year. Blood was collected
from all dogs at 8, 16, and 26 weeks of age and then
4 times yearly. Assays for antibodies directed against
bovine and canine thyroglobulin were performed prior
to and 2 weeks after each yearly vaccination. For the
pet dogs, blood was collected prior to and 2 weeks
after 1 vaccination.
Results—In the research Beagles, there was a significant
increase in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies in
all vaccinated dogs, compared with control dogs.
There was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin
antibodies in the 2 groups of dogs that
received the rabies vaccine but not in the group that
received the multivalent vaccine alone. In the pet
dogs, there was a significant increase in anti-canine
thyroglobulin antibodies after vaccination but no significant
change in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recent vaccination
may result in increased anti-canine thyroglobulin
antibodies. Whether these antibodies have a deleterious
effect on canine thyroid function is unknown.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:515–521)
Objective—To determine the effect of natural exposure to domoic acid (DA) on eosinophil counts and adrenal gland function in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).
Design—Cross-sectional prospective study.
Animals—39 California sea lions.
Procedures—Adult female sea lions admitted to a rehabilitation hospital during 2009 were classified into 1 of 3 groups (acute DA toxicosis, chronic DA toxicosis, or no DA exposure) on the basis of clinical signs, DA concentration in urine or feces, and hippocampal morphology. Endoparasite burden, eosinophil count, and serum cortisol and plasma ACTH concentrations were determined for each sea lion. For a subset of 8 sea lions, fecal glucocorticoid concentration after IM administration of cosyntropin was determined.
Results—Sea lions exposed to DA (acute DA toxicosis, n = 11; chronic DA toxicosis, 19) had higher eosinophil counts and lower serum cortisol concentrations, compared with values for sea lions with no DA exposure (9). Eosinophil count was not associated with endoparasite burden. Serum cortisol concentration was associated with plasma ACTH concentrations in sea lions from the no DA exposure group but not in sea lions in the acute or chronic DA toxicosis groups. Following cosyntropin injection, fecal glucocorticoid concentrations increased in all sea lions evaluated except 1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In adult sea lions, eosinophilia may be a cost-effective biomarker for DA exposure and may reflect alterations in hypothalamic, pituitary gland, or adrenal gland function. Domoic acid exposure may have subtle health effects on marine animals in addition to induction of neurologic signs.
Objective—To evaluate effects of dietary insoluble
fiber on control of glycemia in cats with naturally
acquired diabetes mellitus.
Design—Randomized controlled crossover trial.
Animals—16 cats with naturally acquired diabetes
Procedure—Cats were fed a diet high in insoluble
fiber (HF) containing 12% cellulose (dry-matter basis)
or a diet low in insoluble fiber (LF) for 24 weeks; they
were fed the other diet for the subsequent 24 weeks.
Caloric intake and insulin treatment were adjusted to
maintain stable body weight and control of glycemia,
respectively. Cats were allowed an adaption period of
6 weeks after initiation of a diet, after which control of
glycemia was evaluated at 6-week intervals for 18
weeks. Variables assessed included serum glucose
concentration measured during the preprandial state,
blood glycated hemoglobin concentration, serum glucose
concentration measured at 2-hour intervals for
12 hours beginning at the time of the morning insulin
injection, 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration,
and mean fluctuation in serum glucose concentration
from the 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration.
Results—Mean daily caloric intake, body weight, or
daily insulin dosage did not differ significantly
between cats when fed HF and LF diets. Mean
preprandial serum glucose concentration, most postprandial
serum glucose concentrations, and the 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration were significantly
lower when cats consumed the HF diet, compared
with values when cats consumed the LF diet.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results
support feeding a commercially available diet containing
approximately 12% insoluble fiber (dry-matter
basis) to cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1082–1088)
Objective—To evaluate adrenal sex hormone concentrations
in response to ACTH stimulation in healthy
dogs, dogs with adrenal tumors, and dogs with pituitary-
dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH).
Animals—11 healthy control dogs, 9 dogs with
adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (adenocarcinoma
[ACA] or other tumor); 11 dogs with PDH, and
6 dogs with noncortisol-secreting adrenal tumors
Procedure—Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed on
the basis of clinical signs; physical examination findings;
and results of ACTH stimulation test, low-dose
dexamethasone suppression test, or both. Dogs with
noncortisol-secreting ATs did not have hyperadrenocorticism
but had ultrasonographic evidence of an AT.
Concentrations of cortisol, androstenedione, estradiol,
progesterone, testosterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone
were measured before and 1 hour after IM
administration of 0.25 mg of synthetic ACTH.
Results—All dogs with ACA, 10 dogs with PDH, and
4 dogs with ATs had 1 or more sex hormone concentrations
greater than the reference range after ACTH
stimulation. The absolute difference for progesterone,
17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone concentrations
(value obtained after ACTH administration minus
value obtained before ACTH administration) was significantly
greater for dogs with ACA, compared with
the other 3 groups. The absolute difference for
androstenedione was significantly greater for dogs
with ACA, compared with dogs with AT and healthy
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with
ACA secrete increased concentrations of adrenal sex
hormones, compared with dogs with PDH, noncortisol-secreting ATs, and healthy dogs. Dogs with noncortisol-secreting ATs also have increased concentrations of sex hormones. There is great interdog variability
in sex hormone concentrations in dogs with ACA
after stimulation with ACTH. (J Am Vet Med Assoc