To evaluate the influence of owner presence on behavioral and physiologic indicators of fear in dogs during routine physical examinations.
32 client-owned dogs.
Dogs underwent a standardized, video-recorded examination consisting of 6 phases (examination of the head, lymph node palpation, body palpation, axillary temperature measurement, heart rate assessment, and respiratory rate assessment) with or without their owner present in a randomized, controlled study. Behaviors reported to be indicative of fear, including reduced posture, avoidance, escape, lip licking, body shaking, yawning, and vocalizing, were assessed during each phase, and physiologic measurements were assessed during relevant phases by the investigator. Owner presence and sex and age of dogs were investigated for associations with behavioral signs of fear; behavioral and physiologic measurements were compared between groups (owner present vs owner absent).
Dogs in the owner-present group had a lower rate of vocalizations, lower mean axillary temperature, and higher rate of yawning than dogs in the owner-absent group. Female dogs in the owner-absent group had a higher heart rate than females and males in the owner-present group and males in the owner-absent group, and the rate of lip licking decreased as age increased in the owner-present group. The presence of reduced body posture and rates of lip licking, avoidance behavior, and escape behavior were associated with examination phase.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that, when practical, owners should be encouraged to remain with their dog during routine veterinary examinations. However, effects of owner presence during procedures require further investigation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020;257:1031–1040)
To assess handling techniques commonly used during routine examinations and procedures used for calm, fearful, and aggressive cats by veterinarians and nonveterinarian staff at Canadian and US veterinary practices and to evaluate demographic factors associated with those handling techniques.
310 veterinarians and 944 nonveterinarians who handle cats at Canadian and US veterinary practices.
An online questionnaire was developed to evaluate respondent demographics and use of common cat handling practices and techniques. A snowball sampling method was used to send a link to the questionnaire to members of Canadian and US veterinary-affiliated groups. Descriptive statistics were generated; logistic regression was used to identify demographic factors associated with the use of minimal and full-body restraint with scruffing during routine examination and procedures for fearful and aggressive cats.
Full-body restraint was used to handle cats of all demeanors, although its frequency of use was greatest for fearful and aggressive cats. Veterinarians and nonveterinarians who graduated from veterinary training programs before 2006 were less likely to use full-body restraint for cats of all demeanors, compared with nonveterinarians who did not graduate or graduated between 2006 and 2015. Other factors associated with decreased use of full-body restraint included working at an American Association of Feline Practitioners-certified practice and working at a Canadian practice.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that full-body restraint is commonly used to handle cats. Further research is necessary to determine whether current handling recommendations are effective in decreasing stress for cats during veterinary visits.
Objective—To identify factors associated with development of struvite urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—508 dogs with a first-time diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis and 7,135 control dogs.
Procedures—Electronic medical records of all dogs evaluated at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States between October 2007 and December 2010 were reviewed to identify dogs that developed struvite urolithiasis and 2 groups of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis. Information extracted included diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, and date of diagnosis. Urinalysis results, urolith composition, and other disease conditions were recorded if applicable. Potential risk factors were assessed with univariable and multivariable regression analysis.
Results—Toy- or small-sized breeds had significantly greater odds of struvite urolithiasis, compared with medium- or large-sized breeds. Neutering significantly increased the odds of this outcome in females only; sexually intact females were more likely to develop struvite urolithiasis than were sexually intact males, but only up to 5 years of age. Urinary factors significantly associated with the outcome were basic (vs acidic) pH, presence of RBCs or WBCs, protein concentration > 30 mg/dL, and ketone concentration ≥ 5 mg/dL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of demographic characteristics and urinalysis results may be useful in the early identification of struvite urolithiasis in dogs. Periodic urinalysis in dogs is recommended because of the potential health impact of a late diagnosis of urolithiasis.