Objective—To compare the efficacy of modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines containing either type 1 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) or types 1 and 2 BVDV in protecting heifers and their offspring against infection associated with heterologous noncytopathic type 2 BVDV challenge during gestation.
Design—Randomized controlled study.
Animals—160 heifers and their offspring.
Procedures—After inoculation with a placebo vaccine, 1 or 2 doses of an MLV vaccine containing type 1 BVDV, or 1 dose of an MLV vaccine containing both types 1 and 2 BVDV, heifers were bred naturally and challenge exposed with a type 2 BVDV field isolate between 62 and 104 days of gestation. Pregnancies were monitored; after parturition, virus isolation and immunohistochemical analyses of ear-notch specimens were used to determine whether calves were persistently infected. Blood samples were collected at intervals from heifers for serologic evaluation and virus isolation.
Results—Persistent infection was detected in 18 of 19 calves from heifers in the control group and in 6 of 18 calves and 7 of 19 calves from heifers that received 1 or 2 doses of the type 1 BVDV vaccine, respectively. None of the 18 calves from heifers that received the type 1–type 2 BVDV vaccine were persistently infected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the incidence of persistent BVDV infection among offspring from dams inoculated with 1 dose of the MLV vaccine containing types 1 and 2 BVDV was decreased, compared with 1 or 2 doses of the MLV vaccine containing only type 1 BVDV.
Objective—To determine whether a combination viral vaccine containing a modified-live bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) would protect calves from infection with virulent field strains of BHV-1 for weeks or months after vaccination.
Design—Randomized controlled trial, performed in 2 replicates.
Animals—63 weaned 4- to 6-month-old crossbred beef calves seronegative for antibody against BHV-1.
Procedures—Calves were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Control calves (n = 10/replicate) received a combination modified-live mixed viral vaccine without BHV-1, and treatment calves (20 and 23/replicate) received a combination modified-live mixed viral vaccine containing BHV-1. Each group was challenged via aerosol with 1 of 2 field strains of BHV-1, 30 days after vaccination in replicate 1 and 97 days after vaccination in replicate 2. After challenge, calves were commingled in 1 drylot pen. Clinical signs, immune responses, and nasal shedding of virus were monitored for 10 days after challenge, after which the calves were euthanatized and tracheal lesions were assessed.
Results—Vaccination stimulated production of BHV-1–specific IgG antibody that cross-neutralized several field and laboratory strains of BHV-1. Challenge with both field strains of BHV-1 resulted in moderate to severe respiratory tract disease in control calves. Treatment calves had significantly fewer signs of clinical disease, shed less BHV-1, had less or no weight loss after challenge, and had fewer tracheal lesions than control calves for at least 97 days after vaccination.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of the combination modified-live BHV-1 vaccine yielded significant disease-sparing effects in calves experimentally infected with virulent field strains of BHV-1.