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Abstract

Case Description—A 7-year-old neutered male Saint Bernard was evaluated because of a 6-month history of coughing, gagging, change in phonation, excessive panting, and chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhea.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed no remarkable findings other than panting. Total thyroxine concentration and results of a CBC, serum biochemistry analysis, urinalysis, and thoracic radiography were within reference limits. A laryngeal examination revealed edema, erythema, and ulceration of the larynx and pharynx, with normal laryngeal movement. Results of bronchoscopy and cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were diagnostic only for distal tracheitis. Esophagoscopy and an esophagography revealed esophagitis consistent with gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroduodenoscopy and histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed Helicobacter colonization and lymphocytic or plasmacytic enteritis.

Treatment and Outcome—Following treatment for gastroesophageal reflux and suspected Helicobacter infection with combination antacid and antimicrobial treatment, the dog's respiratory signs resolved but vomiting continued. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed complete resolution of the previous laryngitis, pharyngitis, and esophagitis. Treatment for the lymphocytic or plasmacytic enteritis was initiated with prednisone (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) and a novel protein diet. The previous treatment was also continued. Complete resolution of clinical signs was maintained 4 months after initiation of appropriate treatment.

Clinical Relevance—Laryngeal dysfunction induced by gastroesophageal reflux as occurred in the patient described in this report is a previously undocumented association in the veterinary literature. This association could be a potential consideration in dogs with concurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal signs. The present report may provide a basis for further studies investigating this association.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION 7 juvenile (< 12 months old) dogs with lung lobe torsion were evaluated.

CLINICAL FINDINGS All patients were male; breeds included Pug (n = 5), Chinese Shar-Pei (1), and Bullmastiff (1). Dyspnea and lethargy were the most common initial complaints, with a duration of clinical signs ranging from 1 to 10 days. A CBC showed leukocytosis and neutrophilia in all dogs. Anemia was present in 6 dogs, 2 of which received packed RBC transfusions. The diagnosis was made on the basis of results of thoracic radiography, CT, ultrasonography, or a combination of modalities. The left cranial lung lobe was most commonly affected (n = 4), followed by the right middle lung lobe (2) and the right cranial lung lobe (1).

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME A lateral intercostal thoracotomy with lobectomy of the affected lobe was performed in all patients. All dogs survived to be discharged between 1 and 2 days postoperatively. Six of 7 owners contacted for follow-up information 7 to 170 months after discharge reported satisfaction with the treatment and no apparent signs of recurrence of disease.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE The juvenile patients of this report were successfully treated surgically with no apparent complications. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of lung lobe torsion when evaluating young dogs with clinical signs related to the respiratory system, including those with vague signs, to avoid undue delays in treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate dogs and cats undergoing total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy (TECA-LBO), document antimicrobial choices, and determine relationships associated with infection-related and neurologic postoperative complications.

ANIMALS

107 client-owned dogs and 13 client-owned cats that underwent TECA-LBO.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective analysis of medicals records of dogs and cats with TECA-LBO from 2 veterinary hospitals with postoperative data for at least 6 months was performed. All information associated with the TECA-LBO surgery including follow-up was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were performed and corrected using a false discovery rate to identify significance between antimicrobial administration and other perioperative variables and the outcomes of short- and long-term neurologic and infection-related complications, need for revision surgery, and euthanasia due to recurrence of infection-related signs.

RESULTS

Intraoperative cultures were performed in 111 animals, and 95 (85.5%) had bacterial growth, with Staphylococcus spp most commonly isolated. Revision surgeries due to infection-related signs occurred in 13 of 120 (10.8%) patients. If intraoperative bacterial cultures were positive and antimicrobials were administered within 1 month of surgery, patients were 85.8% less likely to exhibit infection-related complications, whereas patients not administered antimicrobials were 10.3 times as likely to require a revision surgery. Longer durations of postoperative antimicrobial administration were associated with revision surgery and euthanasia due to infection-related signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of systemic antimicrobials within the first postoperative month may be necessary to prevent complications when intraoperative cultures exhibit bacterial growth and plays a role in the successful outcome of TECA-LBO.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify clinical characteristics of, prognostic factors for, and long-term outcome of dogs with multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (MAPSSs) and determine whether survival time was associated with previous portosystemic shunt attenuation.

ANIMALS

72 client-owned dogs with MAPSSs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs in which MAPSSs had been diagnosed between January 2000 and August 2018 were reviewed for signalment, historic and diagnostic findings, management methods, and outcome.

RESULTS

Median survival time of dogs (n = 23) that died of causes related to MAPSSs was 580 days (range, 156 to 1,363 days). Factors significantly associated with dying of MAPSS-related versus unrelated causes included body weight, albumin concentration at the first and last recheck examinations, and cholesterol, total solids, and glucose concentrations at the last recheck examination. Dogs not receiving medical management or without signs of depressed mentation at the time of initial presentation were less likely to die of causes related to MAPSSs. Patient status (alive vs dead of causes related to MAPSSs vs dead of causes unrelated to MAPSSs vs dead of unknown causes) was not significantly associated with survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Survival time for dogs with MAPSSs was not shortened by previous portosystemic shunt attenuation surgery and was not different when death was versus was not related to MAPSSs. Dogs with MAPSSs that had progression of biochemical changes consistent with liver dysfunction were more likely to die of causes related to MAPSSs and were unlikely to live a normal lifespan.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine complication rates for dogs in which full-thickness large intestinal incisions were performed, assess potential risk factors for death during hospitalization and for intestinal dehiscence following these surgeries, and report short-term mortality rates for these patients.

ANIMALS

90 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of 4 veterinary referral hospitals were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent large intestinal surgery requiring full-thickness incisions. Signalment, history, clinicopathologic data, medical treatments, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes were recorded. Descriptive statistics were calculated; data were analyzed for association with survival to discharge (with logistic regression analysis) and postoperative intestinal dehiscence (with Fisher exact or Wilcoxon rank sum tests).

RESULTS

Overall 7-day postoperative intestinal dehiscence and mortality rates were 9 of 90 (10%) and 15 of 90 (17%). Dogs with preoperative anorexia, hypoglycemia, or neutrophils with toxic changes and those that received preoperative antimicrobial treatment had greater odds of death than did dogs without these findings. Preexisting colon trauma or dehiscence, preexisting peritonitis, administration of blood products, administration of > 2 classes of antimicrobials, positive microbial culture results for a surgical sample, and open abdominal management of peritonitis after surgery were associated with development of intestinal dehiscence. Five of 9 dogs with intestinal dehiscence died or were euthanized.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Factors associated with failure to survive to discharge were considered suggestive of sepsis. Results suggested the dehiscence rate for full-thickness large intestinal incisions may not be as high as previously reported, but several factors may influence this outcome and larger, longer-term studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical course of dogs with hemoperitoneum in the perioperative setting and to determine risk factors that may affect short-term outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—83 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—The medical records of dogs with hemoperitoneum that underwent surgery between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Data were analyzed to determine risk factors associated with perioperative outcome. The perioperative period was defined as the time from admission to the hospital for treatment of hemoperitoneum until the time of discharge or euthanasia (within the same visit).

Results—13 of 83 (16%) dogs died or were euthanized in the perioperative period. The median hospitalization time for surviving dogs was 2 days (range, 1 to 5 days). The requirement for a massive transfusion with blood products was a negative prognostic indicator for hospital discharge. The source of bleeding was isolated to the spleen in 75 of 83 (90%) dogs; a splenic source of hemorrhage was determined to be a positive predictor of survival to discharge from the hospital.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the present study, factors associated with death and failure to be discharged from the hospital included tachycardia, a requirement for massive transfusion with blood products, and the development of respiratory disease secondary to suspected pulmonary thromboembolism or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The presence of disease within the spleen was positively associated with survival to discharge. Surgical intervention for treatment of hemoperitoneum, regardless of etiology, resulted in discharge from the hospital for 70 of the 83 (84%) dogs in this series.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate short-term risk factors associated with dehiscence and death in cats undergoing full-thickness large intestinal incisions.

ANIMALS

84 client-owned cats that had undergone full-thickness large intestinal incisions and for which information regarding outcome through postoperative day 7 was available.

PROCEDURES

Medical records from 4 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. For cats that met the inclusion criteria, signalment, history, laboratory test results, surgical and medical procedures, perioperative complications, and outcome were analyzed. A Fisher exact or Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to identify individual variables associated with dehiscence of intestinal incisions or patient nonsurvival to hospital discharge or both.

RESULTS

84 cats met the inclusion criteria. The overall dehiscence and survival to hospital discharge rates were 8.3% (7/84 cats) and 94% (79/84 cats), respectively. Factors associated with dehiscence and nonsurvival to hospital discharge included presence of band neutrophils, performance of partial colectomy with colonic resection and anastomosis, administration of blood products, postoperative cardiopulmonary arrest, and incisional inflammation or infection. Factors associated with nonsurvival to hospital discharge only included low serum globulin concentration, repair of colonic trauma or dehiscence, and postoperative colonic dehiscence. Factors associated with dehiscence only included hypoalbuminemia, renal dysfunction, administration of blood products or > 2 classes of antimicrobials, and intra-abdominal fecal contamination.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that intestinal dehiscence and mortality rates associated with large intestinal incisions in cats may be higher than previously proposed, although the risk of either outcome was still low. Factors suggestive of systemic illness were associated with colonic dehiscence or death, and focused prospective studies of risk factors are warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:162–171)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of laser treatment on incisional wound healing in ball pythons (Python regius).

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult ball pythons.

PROCEDURES Snakes were sedated, a skin biopsy specimen was collected for histologic examination, and eight 2-cm skin incisions were made in each snake; each incision was closed with staples (day 0). Gross evaluation of all incision sites was performed daily for 30 days, and a wound score was assigned. Four incisions of each snake were treated (5 J/cm2 and a wavelength of 980 nm on a continuous wave sequence) by use of a class 4 laser once daily for 7 consecutive days; the other 4 incisions were not treated. Two excisional skin biopsy specimens (1 control and 1 treatment) were collected from each snake on days 2, 7, 14, and 30 and evaluated microscopically. Scores were assigned for total inflammation, degree of fibrosis, and collagen maturity. Generalized linear models were used to investigate the effect of treatment on each variable.

RESULTS Wound scores for laser-treated incisions were significantly better than scores for control incisions on day 2 but not at other time points. There were no significant differences in necrosis, fibroplasia, inflammation, granuloma formation, or bacterial contamination between control and treatment groups. Collagen maturity was significantly better for the laser-treated incisions on day 14.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in collagen maturity at day 14 but did not otherwise significantly improve healing of skin incisions.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the most common types of injuries in cats surgically treated for thoracic trauma, complications associated with surgical treatment, and factors associated with mortality rate and evaluate the effectiveness of the animal trauma triage (ATT) scoring system for predicting outcome.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested observational study.

ANIMALS 23 client-owned cats surgically treated for thoracic trauma at 7 veterinary teaching hospitals between 1990 and 2014.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to collect data on signalment, medical history, clinical signs and physical examination findings at initial evaluation, clinicopathologic findings, initial emergency treatments and diagnostic tests performed, type of trauma sustained, imaging findings, surgery details, postoperative complications, duration of hospitalization, and cause of death, if applicable. All variables were evaluated for associations with survival to hospital discharge.

RESULTS Types of trauma that cats had sustained included dog bite or attack (n = 8 [35%]), motor vehicle accident (6 [26%]), other animal attack (2 [9%]), impalement injury or fall (2 [9%]), projectile penetrating trauma (1 [4%]), or unknown origin (4 [17%]). Intrathoracic surgery was required for 65% (15/23) of cats. The overall perioperative mortality rate was 13% (3/23). Mean ± SD ATT scores for surviving and nonsurviving cats were 6.4 ± 2.2 and 10.0 ± 1.7, respectively. Nineteen of 20 cats with no cardiopulmonary arrest survived to discharge, compared with 1 of 3 cats with cardiopulmonary arrest. Only these 2 variables were significantly associated with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The perioperative mortality rate was low in this series of cats with thoracic trauma; however, those with cardiopulmonary arrest were less likely to survive to hospital discharge than other cats. Cats with a low ATT score were more likely to survive than cats with a high ATT score.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association