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  • Author or Editor: Cassandra Guarino x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Brucella canis is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen of dogs that is notoriously difficult to diagnose and treat. Humans can become infected with B canis when an infected pet dog is brought into their home. Our objectives were to describe the clinical presentation and outcomes in dogs treated for B canis and evaluate the performance of the quantitative serologic canine Brucella multiplex (CBM) assay for monitoring treatment response.

ANIMALS

Diagnostic records from the Animal Health Diagnostic Center at Cornell University were retrospectively reviewed (2017–2022) for dogs that underwent repeat B canis serologic testing. Medical records were requested to compare the clinical presentations and outcomes for dogs that underwent treatment for B canis. Changes in CBM antibody values were compared between dogs with and without resolution of clinical signs.

RESULTS

While treatment protocols varied in the 30 treated dogs meeting the inclusion criteria, poly-antimicrobial therapy was prescribed in 97% (29/30) of cases. Gait abnormalities, spinal pain, and discospondylitis were the most common clinical abnormalities. A difference (P value = .0075) in the percent decrease in CBM assay PO1 antibody values was found in dogs with resolved clinical signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Young dogs presenting with recurring lameness or back pain should be screened for B canis infection. A 40% decline in CBM assay values 2 to 6 months posttreatment can be supportive of response to treatment. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the ideal B canis treatment regimen and the magnitude of public health risks associated with maintaining neutered B canis-infected animals as pets.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study aims to assess the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) trends among Escherichia coli isolated from cats between 2008 and 2022, utilizing MIC data, within a one-health framework.

SAMPLE

The study analyzed MIC results from 1,477 feline E coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center, primarily from the northeastern US.

METHODS

MIC values were categorized as susceptible or not susceptible using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was analyzed using a Poisson regression model. Additionally, accelerated failure time models were employed to analyze MIC values.

RESULTS

Out of the 1,477 E coli isolates examined, 739 (50%) showed susceptibility to all tested antimicrobials. Among the tested antimicrobials, cefazolin (69%) and ampicillin (74% for urinary tract isolates) exhibited the lowest susceptibility. Overall, 15% of isolates were not susceptible to cefovecin. E coli isolates were highly susceptible (> 95%) to antibiotics typically reserved for human use. Almost one-third of the isolates were classified as MDR, with nonurinary isolates more likely to exhibit an MDR pattern. A decrease in MICs for fluoroquinolones and gentamicin in recent years was identified. However, MICs for cephalexin increased from 2016 to 2022 and cefovecin from 2012 to 2019.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study highlights the challenge of AMR in feline medicine, emphasizing the importance of responsible antimicrobial use and surveillance to address E coli AMR. The related Currents in One Health by Cazer et al, JAVMA, December 2023, addresses additional feline antimicrobial stewardship topics.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Brucellosis is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of global significance due to its adverse impact on public health, economics, and trade. Despite being one of the most prevalent zoonoses worldwide, attention given to global brucellosis control and prevention has been inadequate. Brucella species of greatest one-health relevance in the US include those infecting dogs (Brucella canis), swine (Brucella suis), and cattle and domestic bison (Brucella abortus). Although not endemic in the US, Brucella melitensis warrants awareness as it poses a risk to international travelers. While brucellosis has been eradicated from domestic livestock in the US, its detection in US companion animals (B canis) and US wildlife reservoirs (B suis and B abortus) and enzootic presence internationally pose a threat to human and animal health, warranting its spotlight on the one-health stage. The challenges of B canis diagnosis in humans and dogs is addressed in more detail in the companion Currents in One Health by Guarino et al, AJVR, April 2023. Human consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and occupational exposure of laboratory diagnosticians, veterinarians, and animal care providers are responsible for human exposures reported to the US CDC. Diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis is challenging due to the limitations of diagnostic assays and the tendency of Brucella spp to produce nonspecific, insidious clinical signs and evade antimicrobial therapy, making prevention essential. This review will focus on zoonotic considerations for Brucella spp found within the US along with their epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, treatment, and control strategies.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association