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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study aims to assess the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) trends among Escherichia coli isolated from cats between 2008 and 2022, utilizing MIC data, within a one-health framework.

SAMPLE

The study analyzed MIC results from 1,477 feline E coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center, primarily from the northeastern US.

METHODS

MIC values were categorized as susceptible or not susceptible using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was analyzed using a Poisson regression model. Additionally, accelerated failure time models were employed to analyze MIC values.

RESULTS

Out of the 1,477 E coli isolates examined, 739 (50%) showed susceptibility to all tested antimicrobials. Among the tested antimicrobials, cefazolin (69%) and ampicillin (74% for urinary tract isolates) exhibited the lowest susceptibility. Overall, 15% of isolates were not susceptible to cefovecin. E coli isolates were highly susceptible (> 95%) to antibiotics typically reserved for human use. Almost one-third of the isolates were classified as MDR, with nonurinary isolates more likely to exhibit an MDR pattern. A decrease in MICs for fluoroquinolones and gentamicin in recent years was identified. However, MICs for cephalexin increased from 2016 to 2022 and cefovecin from 2012 to 2019.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study highlights the challenge of AMR in feline medicine, emphasizing the importance of responsible antimicrobial use and surveillance to address E coli AMR. The related Currents in One Health by Cazer et al, JAVMA, December 2023, addresses additional feline antimicrobial stewardship topics.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To understand veterinarian and cat owner perspectives on antimicrobial use in cats, reasons for prescribing cefovecin, and barriers to improving antimicrobial stewardship, including veterinarian and cat owner perspectives of giving oral medication to cats.

SAMPLE

21 New York veterinarians and 600 cat owners across the US.

METHODS

Cat owners were surveyed about their preferences for and experiences in giving oral medications to cats and their experiences with antimicrobials specifically. Veterinarians were interviewed about antimicrobial use decisions in cats, benefits and drawbacks of cefovecin, and their perspectives on antimicrobial resistance.

RESULTS

Many veterinarians reported feeling pressure to prescribe antimicrobials, while 41% of cat owners reported requesting antimicrobials. Although veterinarians are aware of the downsides of prescribing cefovecin, many prescribed cefovecin in situations where an antimicrobial was not needed or cefovecin may not have been the best choice. Veterinarians thought that 20% of cat owners could not give oral medications, but < 10% of cat owners had a cat that was impossible to medicate.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The disconnect between veterinarians’ assessment of and cat owners’ reported abilities in administering oral medication may contribute to cefovecin use. Demonstrating for cat owners how to give oral medication may help improve compliance and reduce the use of parenteral long-acting formulations. Structural and educational interventions are needed to address other contributors to inappropriate antimicrobial use. This research provides the specific considerations about barriers and motivations for cat owners and veterinarians that are required to guide strategic, tailored interventions for both audiences to advance stewardship.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Antimicrobial stewardship encompasses all the individual and collective actions that medical professionals take to preserve the efficacy of antimicrobials. It is a one-health problem, affecting animals and humans. The current state of antimicrobial use in cats, particularly (1) the overuse and improper use of cefovecin, which belongs to the third-generation cephalosporin class that is critically important to human health, and (2) use of antimicrobials when they are not needed, poses unsustainable risks of antimicrobial resistance. This paper describes the principles of antimicrobial stewardship and stewardship challenges faced by feline veterinarians, including (1) poor adherence to or awareness of antimicrobial use guidelines, (2) lack of access to affordable diagnostic tests and antibiograms, (3) lack of access to materials and tools for clients that may facilitate more sustainable antimicrobial use and help cat owners understand resistance risks, (4) underestimating the ability of cat owners to administer oral antimicrobials, and (5) limited time and resources to support stewardship efforts. Based on research described in this paper; an original research article by Cazer et al, JAVMA, December 2023; and a Currents in One Health article by Cobo-Angel et al, AJVR, December 2023, several solutions are proposed to advance antimicrobial stewardship in feline medicine. Many of these proposals were expressly requested by veterinarians interviewed in Cazer et al, JAVMA, December 2023. Education and training of veterinarians and cat owners is an essential step toward sustainable antimicrobial use, but it must be complemented with innovations in diagnostic testing, antimicrobial drug development, structural changes, and technological supports.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate (1) variables associated with the likelihood of obtaining a positive culture, (2) commonly isolated microorganisms, and (3) antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates from horses with presumptive synovial sepsis.

SAMPLES

Synovial fluid, synovium, and bone samples from equine cases with presumptive synovial sepsis submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center from 2000 to 2020 for microbial culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing.

PROCEDURES

Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the effect of variables on the likelihood of positive culture. Frequency distributions for isolated organisms and antimicrobial resistance were generated. Multidrug resistance patterns and associations were assessed with association rule mining.

RESULTS

The positive culture rate for all samples was 37.4%, while the positive culture rate among samples confirmed to be septic by a combination of clinical pathological variables and case details was 43%. Blood culture vial submissions were 1.7 times more likely to yield a positive culture compared to samples submitted in a serum tube. Structure sampled, tissue submitted, and horse age were associated with a positive culture. Staphylococcus spp (23.7%), Streptococcus spp (22.4%), and Enterococcus spp (9.67%) were commonly isolated. Multidrug resistance prevalence decreased from 92% (2000 to 2009) to 76% (2010 to 2020) of gram-negative isolates and 60% (2000 to 2009) to 52% (2010 to 2020) of gram-positive isolates.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The positive culture rate from synovial fluid submissions with traditional sampling and culture methods remains low and may be optimized by submitting samples in blood culture vials. Overall, antimicrobial resistance was frequently observed but did not increase from the first to second decade for most genera.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research