OBJECTIVE To monitor concentrations of sulfadimidine in the paranasal sinus mucosa (PSM) of unsedated horses following IV administration of trimethoprim-sulfadimidine via in vivo microdialysis.
ANIMALS 10 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Concentric microdialysis probes were implanted into the subepithelial layers of the frontal sinus mucosa of standing sedated horses. Four hours after implantation, trimethoprim-sulfadimidine (30 mg/kg) was administered IV every 24 hours for 2 days; dialysate and plasma samples were collected at intervals during that 48-hour period and analyzed for concentrations of sulfadimidine. The dialysate concentration and relative loss of sulfadimidine from the perfusate were used to calculate the PSM concentration.
RESULTS Microdialysis probe implantation and subsequent in vivo microdialysis were successfully performed for all 10 horses. Following the first and second administration of trimethoprim-sulfadimidine, mean ± SD peak concentrations of sulfadimidine were 55.3 ± 10.3 μg/mL and 51.5 ± 8.7 μg/mL, respectively, in plasma and 9.6 ± 4.5 μg/mL and 7.0 ± 3.3 μg/mL, respectively, in the PSM. Peak sulfadimidine concentrations in the PSM were detected at 5.9 ± 2.7 hours and 5.4 ± 2.3 hours following the first and second drug administrations, respectively. For 12 hours, mean PSM sulfadimidine concentration remained greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration indicative of sulfonamide susceptibility of equine bacterial isolates (4.75 μg/mL).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In vivo microdialysis for continuous monitoring of PSM sulfadimidine concentrations in unsedated horses was feasible. Intravenous administration of trimethoprim (5 mg/kg) and sulfadimidine (25 mg/kg) proved likely to be efficient for treating sinusitis caused by highly susceptible pathogens, providing that the dosing interval is 12 hours.
Objective—To determine characteristics of the inflammatory reaction in the jejunum of horses in response to various mechanical manipulations.
Animals—12 adult warmblood horses without gastrointestinal tract disorders.
Procedures—The proximal aspect of the jejunum in each horse was divided into 5 segments, and the following manipulations were performed: manual emptying, placement of Doyen forceps, enterotomy alone, enterotomy with mucosal abrasion, and serosal abrasion. Jejunum samples were collected before (control), immediately after, and 30 minutes after the end of manipulations and histologically evaluated to determine distribution of neutrophils and eosinophils.
Results—Macroscopically, all manipulations resulted in jejunal hemorrhage and edema. Compared with control samples, neutrophil numbers were significantly higher after manipulations in the serosa (after all manipulation types), circular muscle layer (after manual emptying), submucosa (after placement of Doyen forceps), and mucosa (after all manipulations except enterotomy alone). Eosinophil numbers were significantly higher in the submucosa after mechanical abrasion of the serosa and manual emptying versus control samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated mechanical manipulation of the jejunum resulted in local inflammatory reactions characterized predominantly by infiltration of neutrophils. This could contribute to the development of postoperative ileus or adhesions in horses without macroscopically detectable injury of the jejunum during surgery.