Objective—To establish reference ranges for coagulation parameters in healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and compare results with those for debilitated manatees undergoing treatment at a rehabilitation facility.
Animals—29 healthy manatees and 45 debilitated manatees with various diseases.
Procedures—Manatees considered healthy on the basis of results of physical examination, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis underwent coagulation testing including measurement of prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, D-dimer concentration, platelet count, and fibrinogen concentration to establish reference ranges. For comparison, a group of manatees undergoing rehabilitation was also tested, and the results were compared. Thromboelastography was also performed on some animals.
Results—Values for D-dimer concentration were significantly higher in debilitated versus healthy animals. There was no significant difference for prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, or fibrinogen concentration between groups. Thromboelastography was performed on 8 healthy animals.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference ranges were established for various tests of coagulation that may assist clinicians during the initial evaluation and rehabilitation of Florida manatees. Future research to evaluate the effect of specific disease processes on the coagulation cascade is recommended.
Objective—To evaluate tissue oxygen saturation (Sto2) by use of near-infrared spectroscopy in experimental acute hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in dogs.
Animals—14 healthy adult purpose-bred Beagles.
Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask, anesthesia was maintained with propofol and rocuronium bromide, and dogs were mechanically ventilated to maintain normocapnia. Dogs were studied under normovolemia (baseline), hypovolemia with target mean arterial blood pressure < 40 mm Hg achieved and maintained steady for 10 minutes (hypovolemia T1), then 20 minutes later (hypovolemia T2), following resuscitation with shed blood (after transfusion), and after administration of 20 mL of hetastarch/kg (hypervolemia). Conditions were executed sequentially during a single anesthetic episode, allowing stabilization between states (10 minutes). Hemoglobin concentration, mean arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas concentrations, cardiac index, oxygen delivery indexed to body surface area, and Sto2 were monitored.
Results—From baseline to hypovolemia T1, there was a significant reduction in mean ± SD oxygen delivery index (619 ± 257 mL/min/m2 to 205 ± 76 mL/min/m2) and StO2 (94 ± 4.4% to 78 ± 12.2%). Following resuscitation, Sto2 (80 ± 8.5% vs 92 ± 6.45%) and oxygen delivery index (211 ± 73 mL/min/m2 vs 717 ± 221 mL/min/m2) significantly increased, returning to baseline values. Hypervolemia had no effect on Sto2 or oxygen delivery index. A strong correlation (r = 0.97) was detected between mean oxygen delivery index and Sto2 across all time points.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under the conditions of this study, there was a strong correlation between Sto2 and oxygen delivery, suggesting that Sto2 may be used to estimate oxygen delivery.
Objective—To assess the accuracy of an ultrasound velocity dilution cardiac output (UDCO) method, compared with that of the lithium dilution cardiac output (LiDCO) method, for determination of cardiac output (CO) in juvenile horses with experimentally induced hypovolemia.
Animals—12 anesthetized 2- to 6-month-old horses.
Procedures—For each anesthetized horse, CO was determined by the LiDCO and UDCO methods prior to any intervention (baseline state), after withdrawal of approximately 40% of the horse's blood volume (low CO state), after maintenance of hypovolemia and infusion of norepinephrine until mean arterial blood pressure was equal to baseline value (high CO state), and after further infusion of norepinephrine and back-transfusion of withdrawn blood (posttransfusion state). For each of the 4 hemodynamic situations, CO and calculated cardiac index (CI) values were obtained by each method in duplicate (8 pairs of measurements/horse); mean values for each horse and overall mean values across all horses were calculated. Agreement between CI determined by each method (96 paired values) was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis.
Results—For the UDCO method–derived CI measurements among the 12 horses, mean ± SD bias was −4 ± 11.3 mL/kg/min (95% limits of agreement, −26.1 to 18.2 mL/kg/min) and mean relative bias was −10.4 ± 21.5% (95% limits of agreement, −52.6% to 31.8%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that, compared with the LiDCO method, the UDCO method has acceptable clinical usefulness for determination of CO in foals.