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  • Author or Editor: Carrie Konoby x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare antibody responses to intranasal and SC Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in seropositive dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—40 young adult Beagles vaccinated against B bronchiseptica.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (intranasal vaccine, SC vaccine, intranasal and SC vaccines, no vaccine) and vaccinated on day 0. Serum and salivary B bronchiseptica-reactive antibody responses were measured on days 0 through 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28.

Results—Dogs that were vaccinated with the SC vaccine, alone or in combination with the intranasal vaccine, had a significant increase in serum concentration of B bronchiseptica-reactive IgG beginning on day 5 and persisting through day 28. Dogs that were vaccinated with the intranasal vaccine alone had a significant increase in serum concentration of B bronchiseptica- reactive IgG beginning on day 10 and persisting through day 28, but serum IgG concentration in these dogs was significantly less than concentration in dogs that received the SC vaccine. Neither vaccine had a demonstrable effect on salivary concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive IgA or IgG. On day 10, all vaccinated groups had significantly higher serum IgA concentrations than did unvaccinated control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the SC B bronchiseptica vaccine may be used to stimulate antibody responses in seropositive dogs. There was no apparent benefit to administering these vaccines simultaneously. Intranasal vaccines may not be effective for booster vaccination of dogs previously exposed to or immunized against B bronchiseptica. Dogs should be vaccinated at least 5 days prior to exposure to B bronchiseptica. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:43–48)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of maternally derived antibodies on induction of protective immune responses against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type II in young calves vaccinated with a modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type I vaccine.

Design—Blinded controlled challenge study.

Animals—24 neonatal Holstein and Holstein-cross calves that were deprived of maternal colostrum and fed pooled colostrum that contained a high concentration of (n = 6) or no (18) antibodies to BVDV.

Procedure—At 10 to 14 days of age, 6 seropositive and 6 seronegative calves were given a combination vaccine containing modified-live BVDV type I. All calves were kept in isolation for 4.5 months. Six calves of the remaining 12 untreated calves were vaccinated with the same combination vaccine at approximately 4 months of age. Three weeks later, all calves were challenged intranasally with a virulent BVDV type II.

Results—Seronegative unvaccinated calves and seropositive calves that were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age developed severe disease, and 4 calves in each of these groups required euthanasia. Seronegative calves that were vaccinated at 2 weeks or 4 months of age developed only mild or no clinical signs of disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that a single dose of a modified-live BVDV type-I vaccine given at 10 to 14 days of age can protect susceptible young calves from virulent BVDV type II infection for at least 4 months, but high concentrations of BVDV-specific maternally derived antibodies can block the induction of the response. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:351–356)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine would protect calves from infection with virulent BRSV.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—27 nine-week-old calves seronegative for BRSV exposure.

Procedure—Group-1 calves (n = 9) were not vaccinated. Group-2 calves (n = 9) were vaccinated on days 0 and 21 with an inactivated BRSV vaccine containing a minimum immunizing dose of antigen. Group-3 calves (n = 9) were vaccinated on days 0 and 21 with an inactivated BRSV vaccine containing an amount of antigen similar to that in a commercial vaccine. All calves were challenged with virulent BRSV on day 42. Clinical signs and immune responses were monitored for 8 days after challenge. Calves were euthanatized on day 50, and lungs were examined for lesions.

Results—Vaccination elicited increases in BRSV-specific IgG and virus neutralizing antibody titers and in production of interferon-γ. Virus neutralizing antibody titers were consistently less than IgG titers. Challenge with BRSV resulted in severe respiratory tract disease and extensive pulmonary lesions in control calves, whereas vaccinated calves had less severe signs of clinical disease and less extensive pulmonary lesions. The percentage of vaccinated calves that shed virus in nasal secretions was significantly lower than the percentage of control calves that did, and peak viral titer was lower for vaccinated than for control calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the inactivated BRSV vaccine provided clinical protection from experimental infection with virulent virus and decreased the severity of pulmonary lesions. Efficacy was similar to that reported for modified-live BRSV vaccines. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1973–1980)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine comparative efficacy of vaccines administered IM and intranasally, used alone or sequentially, to protect puppies from infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica and determine whether systemic or mucosal antibody response correlated with protection.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—50 specific-pathogen-free Beagle puppies.

Procedure—In 2 replicates of 25 dogs each, 14-weekold puppies that were vaccinated against canine distemper virus and parvovirus were vaccinated against B bronchiseptica via intranasal, IM, intranasal-IM, or IMintranasal administration or were unvaccinated controls. Puppies were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of B bronchiseptica 2 weeks after final vaccination. Clinical variables and systemic and mucosal antibody responses were monitored for 10 days after challenge exposure. Puppies in replicate 1 were necropsied for histologic and immunohistochemical studies.

Results—Control puppies that were seronegative before challenge exposure developed paroxysmal coughing, signs of depression, anorexia, and fever. Vaccinated puppies (either vaccine) that were seronegative before challenge exposure had fewer clinical signs. Puppies that received both vaccines had the least severe clinical signs and fewest lesions in the respiratory tract. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive antibodies in serum saliva before and after challenge. Antibody concentrations were negatively correlated with bacterial growth in nasal cavity and pharyngeal samples after challenge exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenterally and intranasally administered vaccines containing B bronchiseptica may provide substantial protection from clinical signs of respiratory tract disease associated with infection by this bacterium. Administration of both types of vaccines in sequence afforded the greatest degree of protection against disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:367–375)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association