An 11-year-old spayed female Rottweiler was evaluated for progressive lameness of the right forelimb of 8 weeks' duration; the limb was non–weight-bearing for 4 weeks' duration. The dog was housed outdoors only, its vaccination status was not adequate, and it did not receive heartworm preventative.
Abnormalities detected during physical examination included a non–weight-bearing lameness of the right forelimb and a firm swelling (approx 13 × 10 × 10 cm) extending from the distal third of the humerus to the proximal aspects of the radius and ulna. Flexion of the elbow joint elicited signs of pain. Results of a CBC
Objective—To determine survival times in dogs with
right atrial hemangiosarcoma treated by means of
pericardectomy and tumor resection, with or without
adjuvant chemotherapy, and identify complications
associated with treatment.
Procedure—Dogs were included only if the diagnosis
was confirmed histologically.
Results—The most common initial complaints included
acute collapse (8 [35%] dogs), anorexia or inappetence
(8 [35%]), and lethargy (8 [35%]). The most common
physical examination abnormalities included muffled
heart sounds (12 [52%] dogs), tachycardia (7
[30%]), and weak pulses (7 [30%]). Postoperative complications
developed in 12 (52%) dogs; however, most
complications were minor. Twenty (87%) dogs were
discharged from the hospital. Survival time was significantly
longer in the 8 dogs that received adjuvant
chemotherapy (mean, 164 days; median, 175 days)
than in the 15 dogs that did not receive chemotherapy
(mean, 46 days; median, 42 days). Dogs that received
chemotherapy were significantly younger and had significantly
lower WBC counts than did dogs that did not
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that in dogs with right atrial hemangiosarcoma,
surgical resection of the tumor was associated with a
low complication rate and complications that did arise
typically were minor. In addition, use of adjuvant
chemotherapy following resection was associated with
significantly longer survival times, compared with resection
alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:575–579)
Objective—To determine whether hematologic and
serum biochemical values for blood samples obtained
from cats via vascular access ports (VAP) are comparable
to those for samples obtained by direct venipuncture.
Animals—14 healthy cats.
Procedure—A VAP was surgically implanted in a jugular
vein in each cat. Blood samples were obtained from the
VAP and by direct venipuncture of the contralateral jugular
vein 10 weeks after VAP placement. Results of
hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were
compared by use of a paired t-test. The P value to reject
the null hypothesis was adjusted to account for multiple
comparisons by using the Bonferroni procedure in which
the nominal P-to-reject value is divided by the number of
comparisons (0.05/24 = 0.002).
Results—Paired samples (VAP and venipuncture)
obtained 10 weeks after VAP placement were evaluated
for each cat. Of the 24 measured analytes, only
potassium, total protein, and albumin concentrations
differed significantly (P < 0.001 for all 3) between VAP
and venipuncture samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that samples obtained from VAP are suitable for routine
hematologic monitoring of feline cancer patients.
Sample hemolysis may account for a slight increase in
potassium, total protein, and albumin concentrations
obtained from VAP samples. However, the values of
variables most critical for monitoring of patients receiving
chemotherapy (ie, mature neutrophil and platelet
counts) are comparable. If proper techniques are used,
VAP may be used for administration of chemotherapy as
well as for blood collection in cats undergoing cancer
treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:482–485)
Objective—To determine the association between
cancer chemotherapy and serum canine distemper
virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and rabies virus
antibody titers in tumor-bearing dogs.
Animals—21 client-owned dogs with various malignancies
and 16 client-owned dogs with lymphoma.
Procedure—In study A, serum antibody titers were
measured by use of hemagglutination inhibition (CPV
titers) or serum neutralization (CDV titers) before and
at least 1 month after initiation of chemotherapy.
Baseline values were compared with values obtained
from a control population of 122 healthy dogs seen for
routine revaccination. Titers were considered protective
at ≥ 1:96 for CDV and ≥ 1:80 for CPV.
In study B, serum IgG titers were measured by
use of immunofluorescent assay (CDV and CPV titers)
and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT,
rabies titers) at baseline and again at weeks 5, 8, and
24 of a standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment
of lymphoma. An IgG titer of ≥ 1:50 was considered
protective for CPV and CDV. An RFFIT titer of ≥ 0.5
U/ml was considered protective for rabies virus.
Results—Significant changes were not detected in
CDV, CPV, and rabies virus titers following chemotherapy
in tumor-bearing dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that established immunity to CDV, CPV, and
rabies virus from previous vaccination is not significantly
compromised by standard chemotherapy used
to treat tumor-bearing dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To identify the most common cutaneous neoplasms in dogs and evaluate breed and age distributions for selected neoplasms.
Design—Retrospective epidemiological study.
Sample—Records available through the Veterinary Medical Database of dogs examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2002.
Procedures—Information on tumor type and patient breed and age was collected. Incidence and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results—Records of 1,139,616 dogs were reviewed. Cutaneous neoplasms were diagnosed in 25,996 of these dogs; records for the remaining 1,113,620 dogs did not indicate that cutaneous neoplasms had been diagnosed, and these dogs were considered controls. The most frequent age range for dogs with cutaneous neoplasms was 10 to 15 years. Lipoma, adenoma, and mast cell tumor were the most common skin tumor types.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results supported previously reported data regarding cutaneous neoplasia in dogs but provided updated information on the most common skin tumors and on age and breed distributions.
Objective—To characterize the biological behavior and prognostic factors associated with hemangiosarcoma in cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—53 cats with hemangiosarcoma.
Procedures—Data were retrieved from a state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, 3 veterinary colleges, and a private practice.
Results—Cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor locations were more common than visceral (abdominal and thoracic) and oral locations. Surgical excision was the primary treatment in 47 cats. Tumor-free surgical margins were more likely in cutaneous than subcutaneous lesions and were associated with longer survival times. Local recurrence was observed in 6 of 12 cats with subcutaneous lesions for which follow-up was available. Metastatic disease was detected in 5 of 13 cats with adequate staging at initial diagnosis. A sixth cat had pulmonary metastases at the time of euthanasia. In 4 of 10 cats with visceral hemangiosarcoma, the diagnosis was made at necropsy or they were euthanized at the time of diagnosis. Adjuvant therapy was uncommonly used. Eighteen of the 21 known deaths or euthanasias were tumor-related. Higher mitotic counts (> 3 in 10 hpfs) were associated with shorter survival times.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma was more biologically aggressive than the cutaneous form and was more likely to recur locally and result in euthanasia or death of the cat. Metastatic potential of the cutaneous and subcutaneous forms may be greater than previously reported. Visceral hemangiosarcoma is associated with a grave prognosis.
Objective—To compare distributions of survivin among tissues from urinary bladders of dogs with cystitis, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), or histologically normal urinary bladders.
Sample Population—24 archived and 7 fresh-frozen specimens of urinary bladders from dogs with cystitis.
Procedures—Immunohistochemical analysis of archived tissue specimens was performed to identify survivin protein in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells by use of polyclonal rabbit anti-survivin antibody. Tissues that contained ≥ 5% immunoreactive cells were considered positive for survivin protein. Reverse-transcription PCR analysis was performed on fresh-frozen tissues to identify survivin mRNA. Data on tissues from dogs with TCC or histologically normal urinary bladders that were obtained during another study were used for statistical comparisons.
Results—Twelve of 24 (50%) cystitic tissues were positive for nuclear survivin, compared with 28 of 41 (68%) TCC tissues and 0 of 46 (0%) normal tissues. Two of 24 (8%) cystitic tissues were positive for cytoplasmic survivin, compared with 7 of 41 (17%) TCC tissues and 17 of 46 (37%) normal tissues. Proportions of specimens that contained nuclear or cytoplasmic survivin were significantly different between cystitic and normal tissues but not between cystitic and TCC tissues. Four of 7 cystitic tissues were positive for survivin mRNA, which was comparable with results for TCC and normal tissues.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nuclear survivin was detected in TCC and cystitic tissues but not in normal urinary bladder tissues. Additional studies are needed to determine whether nuclear survivin contributes to the development or progression of TCC.
Objective—To determine toxic effects of streptozocin
given in combination with a diuresis protocol in dogs
and establish whether streptozocin is efficacious in
treatment of pancreatic islet cell tumors in dogs.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to
obtain information regarding signalment, tumor stage
and staging tests performed, number of streptozocin
treatments, adverse effects, results of biochemical
and hematologic monitoring during streptozocin treatment,
tumor dimensions, duration of normoglycemia,
and date of death, when applicable. Dogs were compared
with a historical control group of 15 dogs treated
surgically and medically.
Results—58 treatments were administered to the 17
dogs. Only 1 dog developed azotemia. Serum alanine
aminotransferase activity increased in some dogs but
decreased when treatment was discontinued.
Hematologic toxicoses were rare. Vomiting during
administration was uncommon but occasionally
severe. Two dogs developed diabetes mellitus after
receiving 5 doses. Median duration of normoglycemia
for 14 dogs with stage-II or -III insulinoma treated with
streptozocin was 163 days (95% confidence interval,
16 to 309 days), which was not significantly different
from that for the control dogs (90 days; 95% confidence
interval, 0 to 426 days). Two dogs had rapid resolution
of paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy, and 2
others had measurable reductions in tumor size.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results
suggest that streptozocin can be administered safely
to dogs at a dosage of 500 mg/m2, IV, every 3
weeks when combined with a protocol for induction
of diuresis and may be efficacious in the treatment
of dogs with metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumors.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:811–818)
Objective—To evaluate use of a radiolabeled peptide nucleic acid–peptide conjugate (RaPP) targeting B-cell leukemia-lymphoma 2 (BCL2) mRNA for scintigraphic detection of neoplastic lymphocytes in dogs with B-cell lymphoma and to assess associations among RaPP uptake, time to tumor progression (TTP), and BCL2 mRNA expression.
Animals—11 dogs with B-cell lymphoma and 1 clinically normal dog.
Procedures—Scintigraphic images were acquired 1 hour after IV injection of the RaPP. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around lymph nodes, liver, and spleen; ROI intensity (relative to that of an equally sized region of muscle in the same image) was measured. Each ROI was also subjectively categorized as positive or negative for increased RaPP uptake. Expression of BCL2 mRNA was determined via quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay of a lymph node sample from dogs with lymphoma. Associations among imaging results, TTP, and BCL2 mRNA expression were evaluated.
Results—Increased RaPP uptake was detected in affected tissues of dogs with lymphoma. Dogs with superficial cervical lymph node ROIs categorized as negative (n = 8) for increased RaPP uptake had a significantly longer TTP than did dogs for which this ROI was considered positive (2). Measured intensity of mandibular and superficial cervical lymph node ROIs was negatively associated with TTP. Associations among BCL2 mRNA and ROI intensity or TTP were not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased RaPP uptake at mandibular or superficial cervical lymph node ROIs may be a negative prognostic indicator in dogs with lymphoma. A larger investigation is needed to determine clinical value of the RaPP for disease detection and prognostication.
Objective—To evaluate samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (153Sm-EDTMP) as a treatment option for dogs with bony tumors of the skull.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—Dogs with multilobular osteochondrosarcoma (MLO) or osteosarcoma (OSA) of the skull.
Procedures—Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital records from the Universities of Missouri and Florida from 1986 to 2006 were searched for dogs with primary skull tumors treated with 153Sm-EDTMP.
Results—25 dogs were initially evaluated, with 5 dogs subsequently excluded because of inadequate follow-up or unrelated death. Seven OSAs and 13 MLOs were diagnosed. Tumors involved the occipital and frontal bones (n = 10), zygomatic arch and maxilla region (6), palate (3), and mandible (1). No clinically important adverse effects related to 153Sm-EDTMP treatment were documented. Of the 20 dogs evaluated 21 days after injection with 153Sm-EDTMP, 4 had subjective improvement, 13 had progressive disease, and 3 had insufficient follow-up. On the basis of radiographic findings, metastasis was suspected in 1 dog; 16 dogs had no metastasis evident, and medical records were insufficient for 3 dogs. Survival time, defined as the 153Sm-EDTMP injection date to the date of death, ranged from 3 to 1,314 days (median, 144 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The subjective improvement in 4 patients and lack of clinical evidence of adverse effects suggested that 153Sm-EDTMP injection may be an option for the treatment of dogs with MLO or OSA of the skull when other treatments have failed or surgery is not possible.