Objective—To establish hematologic and biochemical
reference values for the brown pelican (Pelecanus
Animals—31 captive, healthy, but permanently disabled
pelicans and 35 wild-caught, healthy pelicans
from a rehabilitation facility on the east coast of
Procedures—Samples of venous blood were collected
from each pelican, and hematologic, plasma biochemical,
and electrophoretic protein analyses were
performed. Student t-tests were used to compare
blood values between captive versus wild-caught,
adult male versus adult female, and adult versus juvenile
Results—Hematologic and electrophoretic values
were similar between male and female, adult and
juvenile, and captive and wild-caught pelicans.
Significant sex differences existed for plasma calcium
and triglyceride concentrations. Plasma concentrations
of calcium, cholesterol, and CO2 content differed
between captive and wild-caught adults. No significant
differences were found between wild-caught
adult and juvenile pelicans.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our plasma
biochemical results are similar to those of other brown
pelicans and confamilial species. Additional studies on
seabirds are encouraged, as age, sex, reproductive
status, feeding habits, and captivity are important variables
for health assessment in this and other aquatic
species. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:771–774)
Objective—To evaluate the usefulness of an antibody detection ELISA and protein electrophoresis (PE) for diagnosing Encephalitozoon cuniculi (ECUN) infection in pet rabbits.
Animals—203 pet rabbits.
Procedures—Serum and plasma samples from pet rabbits were submitted from veterinary clinics within the United States. Participating veterinarians completed a questionnaire that was used to classify rabbits as clinically normal (n=33), suspected of having an ECUN infection (103), or clinically abnormal but not suspected of having an ECUN infection (67). An ELISA for detection of serum or plasma IgG against ECUN was developed by use of commercially available reagents. Results of the ELISA and PE were used to detect ECUN infection.
Results—A high seroprevalence of antibody against ECUN was detected in all 3 groups of rabbits. In rabbits suspected of having an ECUN infection, the mean IgG titer was 1.7 times as high as the values in the other rabbit groups. Rabbits suspected of having an ECUN infection and those that were simply clinically abnormal had a higher concentration of γ-globulins than clinically normal rabbits. This increase in globulins concentration was accompanied by a decrease in the albumin-to-globulin ratio. Results of the ELISA and PE were significantly different between clinically normal rabbits and those suspected of having an ECUN infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of an ELISA and PE may aid in the diagnosis of ECUN infection in pet rabbits.
Impact for Human Medicine—Because ECUN is a potential zoonotic agent, diagnostic methods for pet rabbits need to be improved to protect human health.
Objective—To compare serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration, plasma fibrinogen concentration, total WBC count, and serum albumin-to-globulin concentration ratio (A:G ratio) in clinically normal (CN) and clinically abnormal (CA) horses.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—111 CN horses and 101 CA horses hospitalized at a specialty clinical practice.
Procedures—Shortly after admission, a blood sample (20 mL) was collected from each horse for a CBC, serum protein electrophoresis, and determination of plasma fibrinogen concentration; SAA concentration was assessed with a previously validated immunoturbi-dometric assay. Similar testing of a subset of CA horses was conducted at various points during treatment.
Results—Total WBC count, A:G ratio, and SAA concentration were determined for all 212 horses; data regarding plasma fibrinogen concentration were available for 127 horses (of which 47 were CN and 80 were CA). Median SAA concentration, total WBC count, and plasma fibrinogen concentration and mean A:G ratio differed significantly between CN horses and CA horses. Correlations between these variables were poor to weak. For discrimination of CN horses from CA horses, the SAA assay had sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 94% (diagnostic accuracy, 75%); for the other assessments, accuracy ranged from 59% to 62%. Repeated assessment of SAA concentration in some CA horses revealed a gradual return to normal concentrations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that assessment of SAA concentration can provide valuable information regarding the clinical state of horses and may be more useful for patient monitoring and as a prognostic indicator than are traditional markers of inflammation.
To evaluate the agreement between 3 point-of-care (POC) devices and a reference laboratory for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration in African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) whole blood (WB) and plasma samples and the precision of each POC device for measuring β-HB concentration in plasma samples.
48 healthy African penguins.
Blood was obtained from the right jugular vein of each penguin, and β-HB concentration was measured on each POC device using fresh WB and heparinized plasma and at the reference laboratory using plasma. β-HB concentration was measured in plasma on each POC device.
All devices overestimated serum β-HB concentrations on average by 0.46 mM relative to the reference laboratory. WB samples had less error than plasma for meters A and C. Meter A had the lowest total error observed (26.4%) and the lowest mean difference (0.19 mmol/L) relative to the reference laboratory. Controlling for other factors, the magnitude of disagreement was not affected by sex, age, packed cell volume, or serum total solids concentration.
WB, not plasma, should be used for measurement of β-HB concentration on the POC meters tested. Meter A showed good correlation with the reference laboratory for WB. The use of POC devices for the measurement of β-HB concentration may be acceptable when laboratory analyzers are not available. Further research is needed for clinical application and the diagnostic value of POC meters compared with reference laboratories.
To provide information about complication rates and the risk factors for complications with mandibulectomy and maxillectomy procedures in dogs.
459 client-owned dogs that underwent a mandibulectomy or maxillectomy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018.
Inclusion criteria included a complete medical record that contained an anesthesia record, surgical report, available histopathology results, and results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis before surgery. A minimum follow-up of 90 days after surgery was required.
271 complications occurred in 171 of 459 (37.3%) dogs. Eighteen complications were not given a severity description. Of the remaining 253 complications, most were considered minor (157/253 [62.1%]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only increased surgical time had a significant (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.54) association with the occurrence of ≥ 1 complication. For each additional hour of surgery, the odds of complications increased by 36%. Preoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Additionally, undergoing maxillectomy, compared with mandibulectomy, increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1). Two hundred forty-four of 271 (90.0%) complications occurred in the perioperative period (0 to 3 months after surgery).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Compared with mandibulectomy, performing maxillectomy increased the risk for incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation. Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy had a moderate risk for a complication.